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A Critical Discourse Analysis of two Translated Versions of the Novel Coming up for Air by George Orwell

– This study attempts to discover the ideological differences between George Orwell's Coming Up for Air and its two Persian translations. According to Fairclough Ideology in discourse is encoded in the lexical, grammatical and textual items and
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  International Journal of Educational Investigations Available online @ Vol.2, No.5: 66-77, 2015 (May) ISSN: 2410-3446 66 A Critical Discourse Analysis of two Translated Versions of the Novel “Coming up for Air” by George Orwell   Shabnam Karimian Sichani 1 * , Bahram Hadian 1   1. Department of Foreign Languages, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran. * Corresponding Author  ’s Email :    Abstract  –    This study attempts to discover the ideological differences between George Orwell’s Coming Up for Air and its two Persian translations. According to Fairclough Ideology in discourse is encoded in the lexical, grammatical and textual items and changes in these items indicate different ideology. To do this, grammatical structures of the source text and target texts were analyzed based on Halliday Systemic Functional Grammar. The results revealed that there were no ideological differences between the source text and its corresponding translations. However the second translator has used the target language natural structures more frequently in translation of passive structures but in rendering  pseudo-cleft, cleft and preposing both translators have adopted similar strategies. Keywords :  critical discourse analysis, textual analysis, ideology, translation, Hallidayan systemic functional grammar, syntactic structures I. INTRODUCTION Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is a branch of applied linguistics which studies discourse and language in relation to social and political issues to discover how they affect each other. Fairclough’s model may be considered as the cornerstone of the entire field of CDA, because he was the first to create a theoretical framework, which provided guidelines for future CDA research. His model is based on the assumption that language is an irreducible part of social life. The dialectic relation between language and social reality is realized through social events (texts), social practices (orders of discourse) and social structures (languages) (Fairclough 2003). Taking Fairclough (2001:21-2) into account, description is one of the three stages of his analyzing model. In this stage ten questions and some sub-questions could be investigated by researchers who are interested in textual analysis of the features related to forms. In the present study some of these questions have  been investigated and the results have been expressed through tables and graphs. Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is a branch of applied linguistics which has been rarely applied in translation analysis in Iran. Farahzad (2007) seems to be among the first scholars who have specifically used Fairclough’s CDA theory in  the Iranian context. For translation criticism, Farahzad (2007) adopts a two-level procedure: micro-level and macro-level. She states that at both levels, lexical choices, metaphors, grammatical elements, and multimodal elements are checked for ideological implications.  S. K. Sichani et al. 67 Tinna Puurtinen (2003), in her contribution to Critical Discourse Analysis, discusses the potential ideological effects translations have, especially those produced implicitly by linguistic forms like nominalization, passivization, premodification, etc. In translation ideologically motivated linguistic structures of a source text may be manipulated either unintentionally because of inadequate language and/or translation skills or insufficient knowledge of the relationship between language and ideology , or intentionally owing to translation norms, requirements of the translation commission or the translator own attitudes toward the source text subject . Sertkan (2007), in his MA thesis, studied five Turkish translations of Oliver Twist to investigate how ideology specially “religious - conservative ideology”, affects lexical choices in translation of children literature by means of Fairclough (1995). He believed intervention of that ideology in Turkish version brings about distortion of th e source text” (Sertkan, 2007). He concluded that “therefore ideology plays a significance role in the decision making  process undertaken by translators and other individuals, such as publishers who are involved in this process in one way or another” (Sertkan, 2007). Maintained along with critics, reviewers, teachers and translators’  ideology which control the translation process and strategies, patronage that is individuals, groups, religious and political parties, the media or  publishers influences translation. In another study, Shamsali (2007) conducted a study to examine whether ideological differences occur when it comes to trans-journalism (i.e., translations which deal with  journalism, such as news, editorials, etc.) and if so, in which media, namely conservative or  pro-reform media, such differences are more considerable. To this end, the researchers used 30 trans-journalist texts from the above mentioned media to translate the intended corpus of his research which was chosen from different pieces of news about Israel-Palestine conflict that potentially carried ideological weight. The theoretical framework of this study was adopted from van Dijk's (1998) CDA model. The results indicated that there were significant differences between conservative and pro-reform media in translating the news. In the conservative media the percentages of political-ideological changes were much higher in comparison to pro-reform ones due to their different political-ideological perspectives and  beliefs. The approach to CDA chosen for this study is that of Norman Fairclough (1995). In order to analyze the text according to Fairclough’s first stage, Description, considering the research questions, the researchers found Halliday’s (1994) Systemic Functional Gramma r an adequate framework in this regard. According to SFG we carry out functions through language, i.e. what we intend to do with a piece of language. Clearly, writers have reasons for saying something and for saying it in the way they do. Translators who transfer the messages from one language to another are responsible to take out the hidden intentions of the writer. As given by Fairclough (1995), the first stage in text analysis is description to find out linguistic features such as features of vocabulary, grammar, types of speech act, the directness or indirectness of expression and features to do with the overall structure of interactions. All these features will finally lead to the uncovering of power relations and ideological processes in discourse. In this study the researchers in the stage of text analysis,  S. K. Sichani et al. 68 took the grammatical elements into account and by considering SFG described the differences and similarities in two translated versions of George Orwell’s novel “Coming up for air”. The purpose of this study was to investigate if there were any ideological differences according to the choice of the translators in rendering specific grammatical structures such as  passive structures, cleft, pseudo-clefts and preposing. The researchers decided to study the source text thoroughly in order to find instances of the grammatical structures to answer the following question: Is the ideology behind the text revealed through the use of certain syntactic structures (e.g. active vs. passive, preposed structures and cleft structures) in the process of translating this English novel into Persian? II. METHODOLOGY A. Materials A complete coverage of “ Coming Up for Air  ” written by Georg Orwell  , ST along with its two translated versions  Roshanfekr   (1390), TT1; and Saeednia (1372), TT2 was done  by the researchers in order to have enough samples to analyze. The researchers chose this  book because it was amenable to the researchers’ intended framework in narrative genre. The discourse of the book was analyzed within the framework proposed by Fairclough, besides, Halliday’s Systemic Functional Grammar was a suitable approach for the researchers to find out the strategies used by translators. To indicate the exact nature of discursive strategies utilized by the writer and the translators, and to compare the discursive characteristics and underlying ideologies of the intended text, the researchers studied the whole source book and extracted some instances with their translations and analyzed them according to the parameters defined by the selected framework. It should be noted that among different grammatical elements, the researchers investigated the passive structure, cleft & pseudo-cleft and preposed structures. B. Data Collection Procedure  The d ata for analysis were collected from the source text “ Coming up for Air  ” and two translated versions of the book. To achieve the research objectives the following procedures were followed:      Studying the theoretical background of Critical Discourse Analysis and relevant review of literature.    Studying the source book “ Coming up for air  ” and its two translated versions in order to find appropriate examples regarding the research questions.    Organizing the data collected in different categories.    Drawing the Diagrams, tables and charts.    Conducting a Chi-Square test in order to compare the translations and source text.    Analyzing the data  S. K. Sichani et al. 69 C. Data Analysis Procedure After the data were collected from the source and target books, data analysis which was the categorizing the samples according to the applied strategies was performed by the researcher. To this end, particular statistical procedures were followed.   First, in order to investigate the differences between the source text and their translations, classification schemes, ideological contested structures and meaning relations of the book as well as their grammatical differences must be analyzed. To analyze the data, descriptive and inferential statistical procedure were used. For the descriptive part, the researchers utilized percentage and to find out whether there were any significant differences, Chi-square test was used. III. RESULTS In order to answer the research question, the data were classified into three main categories namely Passive structures, preposing and cleft & pseudo-cleft structures. By comparing the source text with their corresponding translations frequencies and percentages of basic discursive strategies attributed to the aforementioned grammatical structures in the translated books were analyzed.  A. Strategies Applied to Translate Passive Structures Considering the following table the researchers categorized the translation strategies into five  parts; Inchoative, Impersonal, Active, Passive and Unaccusative.    An inchoative structure is a structure in which a causative verb is used intransitively where the direct object of the sentence appears in the position of subject and the subject or the cause is not mentioned; e.g. ‘The door opened’ (Levin, 1993; Schafer, 2008).    An Unaccusative   verb is an intransitive verb which applies only one argument which is deep-structurally direct object (or complement) but it appears in the position of subject at the surface level. Nonetheless, it is not the agent or the doer of the act of the verb; e.g. ‘  fall  ’ (L evin & Rappaport Hovav, 1995).    An impersonal Passive deletes the subject of an intransitive verb. In place of the verb's subject, the construction instead may include a syntactic placeholder, also called a dummy. This placeholder has neither thematic nor referential content Regarding the ideational meaning Persian passive structure has the same function as the English one which is, demoting the agent and promoting the function of the patient and also changing the presupposition of the structure but considering the textual meaning passive structure is not a commonly used syntactic structure in Persian with the same function.  S. K. Sichani et al. 70 Table 1: The Frequency & Percentile of the Strategies used by TT1 & TT2 Passive Translation Strategies Frequency in TT1 Percentile in TT1 Frequency in TT2 Percentile in TT2 Inchoative 12 10.08% 18 15.12% Unaccusative 15 12.60% 33 27.73% Impersonal Passive 19 15.96% 20 16.80% Active voice 31 26.05% 29 24.36% Passive voice 42 35.29% 19 15.96% According to the results obtained from the presented frequencies and percentile ranks in Table 1, the dominant strategy that has been adopted to translate the passive structures by the first translator is passive voice, on the other hand in TT2 the dominant strategy that has been used by the translator is the unaccusative structure. The conclusion that could be drawn from the results obtained in this part is that the second translator has used a more natural form in rendering the same structure than the first translator. Regarding English and Persian,  passivization is not used in Persian as much as in English. Also Persian passive does not include all the communicative features of English passive. Figure 1: Percentages of Passive Form translation Strategies in TT1 Regarding the pie chart, just 10% of the strategies that have been adopted by the first translator consist of Inchoative structures. The rest 90% have been shared among unaccusative, impersonal forms, active and passive structures. To sum up, passive structure has the highest usages in TT1. The researchers’ interpretation of the obtained results of this study is that in the translation of English passive voice, TT1 results have demonstrated a considerably higher tendency toward passive voice translation compared to other strategies. Moreover, among the applied strategies used by TT2 (figure2), higher tendency is demonstrated for unaccusative structure. This may be due to the structural differences
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