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AN ANALYSIS OF DIRECTIVE SPEECH ACT FOUND IN KOI MIL GAYA MOVIE

The aim of this research is to find out the type of directive speech acts and to find out which directive speech acts most frequently used in "Koi Mil Gaya" movie. The research is conducted by using a qualitative approach.
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  Journal of Pragmatics Research  Vol. 01, No. 02 (2019) , pp.89-99    Website: http://e-journal.iainsalatiga.ac.id/index.php/jopr/index 89 AN ANALYSIS OF DIRECTIVE SPEECH ACT FOUND IN “KOI MIL GAYA” MOVIE   Tira Nur Fitria STIE AAS Surakarta tiranurfitria@gmail.com Submission Track: Received: 24-04-2019 Final Revision: 22-10-2019 Available online: 31-10-2019 Corresponding Author: Tira Nur Fitria tiranurfitria@gmail.com ABSTRACT The aim of this research is to find out the type of directive speech acts and to find out which directive speech acts most frequently used in “Koi Mil Gaya” movie. The research is conducted by using a qualitative approach. This research describes the  phenomenon, the data, the situation, as it is really found. The technique of data collection in this research is a documentary study. From the result of this study, the writer finds that there are 246 utterances of directive speech act produced by the characters in the movie as 196 data. The form of the directive act can be found in utterances which contain words, phrase, clause, and sentences. From the analysis shows that in “Koi Mil Gaya” movie shows a directive speech act which contains three aspects, they are command, request, and suggestion. First, in command, there are 165 data (utterances) or 84.18 %. Second, in suggestion, there are 20 data/utterances or 10.20 %. Third, in a request there are 11 data//utterances or 5.61 %. While the most dominant type of directive speech act is in command. Keywords : Speech Act, Directive, Movie   INTRODUCTION Pragmatic is part of a linguistic study. Pragmatics is about how the listener interprets utterances and the speaker produces interpretable utterances (Griffiths, 2006: 21). While Yule (2005:3) defines that pragmatics is the study of how more get communicated than what is said.  Tira Nur Fitria 90 Therefore, in daily communication, we usually use the utterances in acting, which is known as a speech act. A speech act is a part of a pragmatic study that studies about utterances. Speech acts can shed a great deal of light on broader cultural themes, but equally the significance of any particular speech act category can only be fully understood in broader cultural context (Abdullah, 2012). Nastri et.al (2006) states that the function of speech act is a functional unit of language that informs people to do things with words, which means the speaker performs an act of saying something in order to participate in a communication. According to Searle (1969), one can perform only five basic actions in speaking, by means of the following types of utterances, they are representative (committing the speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition), directives (making the hearer to do something), commissive (the speaker commits himself to a certain course of an action to be taken in the futu re), expressive (expressing the speaker’s feelings, and declarative (bringing out a change in the external situation of the world through utterances. Directives are used by the speaker who attempts to get the addressee to carry out an action. According to Austin (1962), directives are used by the speaker to get the hearers/listeners do or not to do something. It can be in the form of order, warning, urging, directing, and advising. As stated by Cutting (2002: 17), directives cover acts in which the words are aimed at making the hearers/listeners do something, such as commanding, requesting, inviting, advising and suggesting. Schmidt and Richards (1980), as cited in Flor (2005), state that in directive contains speech acts such as request, command, and suggestion. Each type of directive has a different purpose and function. The main goal is to get the hearer to do something, although the force of the attempt can differ from one speech act to another. While, Amalsaleh et al. (2004) state that the same form of directives may imply the different functions or conversely, the same function also may be expressed via a variety of forms. In short, the researcher chooses this topic based on the consideration of the fact that the directive is found here as a linguistic phenomenon. The writer wants to show several kinds of the directive is used in a movie. Directive speech acts often happens in daily life and communication which related to society or community members and language development especially in a movie. They are essential actions in social interactions. It is also can be found in the movie. When the characters in the movie ask the other characters to do something, it means that the characters (as a speaker) perform a speech act which is called as a directive. There are many movies which contain the directive speech act. One of the examples is “Koi Mil Gaya” movie. “Koi Mil Gaya” (English: Found Someone) is a 2003 Indian science fiction film directed by Rakesh Roshan (who also has a cameo role). It is the first installment in Krrish (franchise). The film stars are Hrithik Roshan and Preity Zinta in the lead roles with Rekha plays an important supporting role. There is a previous study that is related to the directive speech acts in a movie/film. Research is written by Kristiani and Muhartoyo (2013) entitled An Analysis of Directive Speech Acts in the Movie “Sleeping Beauty”. This study aims to find out how often the directive speech acts performed and which type of directive speech acts that are most frequently used in the  Journal of Pragmatics Research  Vol. 01, No. 02 (2019) , pp.89-99    Website: http://e-journal.iainsalatiga.ac.id/index.php/jopr/index 91 movie. The writer uses a qualitative method by collecting data from watching the movie, analyzing the body movement and the dialogues of each character, read the script and library research. A total of 139 directive speech acts were successfully identified. The result of the analysis shows that the directive speech acts of ordering are the most frequently used in the movie (21,6%). The least frequently used directive speech acts is inviting directive speech acts (0,7%). The study also reveals the importance of directive speech acts in keeping the flow of the storyline of the movie. This study expected to give some useful insights into understanding what directive speech acts are. This research has some similarities and differences with the previous research. In similarities, both of the two pieces of research analyze the same topic of directive speech act and focus on the movie. While in the differences, both of two pieces of research have the different title of the movie. The other differences are in the amount of data analyzed and the result of the research which surely will be different. Therefore, the writer is interested in exploring the use of directive speech acts in the movie and wants to find the answers to the following problems in this study. The writer formulates the goals of the research are to find out the type directive speech acts appear in “Koi Mil Gaya” movie and to find out which directive speech acts most frequently used in the movie. RESEARCH METHOD The research uses using a qualitative approach. Creswell (2012) states that in qualitative research, a central phenomenon is the key concept, idea, or process studied. In qualitative descriptive, the description of needs presentations of the facts of everyday language. This research describes the phenomenon, the data, the situation, as it is really found. The technique of data collection in this research is a documentary study. This writer uses a documentary study because the data is in the form of a document or written text. Denscombe (2007: 230) argues that documents can be obtained from the internet such as website pages, home pages, or email and they can be treated like online documents. In this study, the data are obtained by watching the “Koi Mil Gaya” movie and read the English s ubtitle of the movie. The writer finds that there are 196 utterances of directive speech act produced by the characters in the movie. In collecting the data, the writer tries to understand each of the dialogues/utterances and find out the directive speech acts performed in this movie. The writer only takes the dialogues/utterances that contain directive speech acts in this movie. Likewise, the writer downloads the script from the internet and prints it. The writer marks the dialogue that contains directive speech acts and identifies what kind of directive speech acts are performed in the dialogue.    Tira Nur Fitria 92 RESULTS & DISCUSSION Results From the findings of this research, it is found that the directive act also found in “Koi Mil Gaya” movie. In the dialogues between the characters in the movie, it shows the directive utterances. The form of the directive act can be found in words, phrase, clause, and sentences. Furthermore, there are three types of directive acts which exist in this movie, they are command, request, and suggestion. The descriptions are as follows: 1.   Command A command is more commonly known as imperative. A command is one of the types of the directive act found in “Koi Mil Gaya” movie. A command is used to give orders or exert authority toward someone or something. The usual function of a command/imperative sentence is to give a command or instruction. It tells us to do something. Command sentences are used when people are telling someone to do something or not to do something. Imperatives are divided into two groups, they are positive and negative imperatives. For example: A.   Positive Form Positive command/imperative is to form a positive imperative we use the base form of the verb. The base form is the form in the dictionary. For example: (1) Code : 001-KMG-M Directive : Look! They're responding! (2) Code : 049-KMG-M Directive : Wait! (3) Code : 026-KMG-M Directive : Move...move! (4) Code : 082-KMG-M Directive : Sir! Look! (5) Code : 156-KMG-M Directive : Go... go home. From the example, the number 1-5 above show that the utterances contain the directive speech act. We should also use commands when you are writing instructions telling someone how to do something. Commands usually start with an imperative verb, also it is known as a 'bossy verb' because they tell someone to do something. The typical form (structure) of an English imperative sentence uses the base verb with no subject. In fact, many imperative sentences consist of nothing but the verb. The final punctuation is usually found is ending a full-stop/period (.) or an exclamation mark/point (!). (6) Code : 081-KMG-M Directive : Please ... give me some strength, Lord! (7) Code : 149-KMG-M Directive : Lord Krishna, please  do something. (8) Code : 190-KMG-M Directive : Please , I request  Journal of Pragmatics Research  Vol. 01, No. 02 (2019) , pp.89-99    Website: http://e-journal.iainsalatiga.ac.id/index.php/jopr/index 93 From the example, number 6-8 above show that the utterances contain the directive speech act. Although we use imperative sentences to give direct commands, we can also use them to give instructions more politely than a straight command. Imperatives can also be used with words like "please" or "kindly" to add politeness. (9) Code : 028-KMG-M Directive : Sukhwani, give them a ticket. (10) Code : 044-KMG-M Directive : Give me more. (11) Code : 046-KMG-M Directive : Give us some food. (12) Code : 059-KMG-M Directive : Go and take your seat. (13) Code : 068-KMG-M Directive : Give her a nice present. From the example, number 9-13 above show that the utterances contain the directive speech act. Imperative with a pronoun. Normally when we use the imperative there is no subject because the subject is obvious  —  it's YOU! Sometimes, however, to make the subject clear, we do use an object pronoun. For example, “them, me, us, your and her”.  (14) Code : 071-KMG-M Directive : Sit down, son. (15) Code : 074-KMG-M Directive : Nisha, save the page. (16) Code : 078-KMG-M Directive : Rohit, come quickly. (17) Code : 123-KMG-M Directive : Rohit, pass the ball. (18) Code : 175-KMG-M Directive : See, auntie? Rohit said he'd make it big someday. From the example, number 14-18 above show that the utterances contain the directive speech act. Imperative with a pronoun. Normally when we use the imperative there is no subject because the subject is obvious  —  it's YOU! Sometimes, however, to make the subject clear, we do use a subject pronoun, for example, the name stated above. (19) Code : 031-KMG-M Directive : Hope you've got the message.
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