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AN APPROACH TO THE INQUISITION REPRESENTATION IN AUDIO-VISUAL FICTION

While audiovisual content is increasingly accessible to the general public, new teaching strategies seek different ways of interacting with students through these media. Does it have any advantage to use movies during classes? How can you take
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  IJOLHI nº 3 ISSN 2515-9208 319 AN APPROACH TO THE INQUISITION REPRESENTATION IN AUDIO-VISUAL FICTION Erika Prado Rubio Universidad Rey Juan Carlos Abstract: While audiovisual content is increasingly accessible to the general public, new teaching strategies seek different ways of interacting with students through these media. Does it have any advantage to use movies during classes? How can you take advantage of cinema for History class? This article shows some examples of the cinematographic representation of the Inquisition and its possible teaching use.  Key words: Cinema, Audiovisual content, Education, History, Historical Films Inquisition, Holy Office.    IJOLHI nº 3 ISSN 2515-9208 320 1. - Cinema as a Teaching Tool There is no doubt that the democratization and improvement of technology have changed our way of living, with an image culture where information of any kind abounds from which the Knowledge Society takes its name from. As could be expected, education, one of the cornerstones for the development of any society and the preservation of the culture, has been influenced by this evolution: Knowledge acquisition has lost importance in favour of “knowledge construction 1 ”. The “Master    Class” teachings is being replaced little by little by a new, more complex system in which research, individual work and teamwork take priority 2 . The trends toward specialization heighten the importance of practice and usefulness of theoretical knowledge as drivers of this society changes: The mistake traditional teaching falls in consists in having fragmented knowledge so much it has dismembered its inner sense. The knowledge an investigation provides does not end in itself, but in its utility or use, in what is done with that information, in the changes it generates 3 . In this context, cinema become one of the main tools for the implementation of integrative learning, thanks to its content’s variety and easy access. Despite theory still playing an important role in any branch of knowledge, a new teaching is suggested, based on the experience of senses, emotions and imagination, and with the feelings as main source of information from the outer world. Cinema represents 1   MEIER, A., “El cine como agente de cambio educativo” in Sinéctica  nº22, 2003, page 59 2   VILLAMARÍN, S. “Aprender derecho a través del cine”, in  Miradas a la innovación: Experiencias de innovación en la docencia del derecho. Valencia, 2009, page 126. 3  TORRE, S. D. L., OLIVER, C., VIOLANT, V., TEJADA FERNÁNDEZ, J., RAJADELL, N., & GIRONA, M., “El cine como estrategia didáctica innovadora”, in Contextos educativos , n º 6-7, 2003-2004, page 73.  IJOLHI nº 3 ISSN 2515-9208 321 an overall vision, non-fragmented by disciplines, which include the great motivational power of the emotions. Traditional teaching must incorporate other inherent processes in human learning: It must incorporate the mistake as a knowledge strategy, use the method as a strategy able to adapt to contexts and not as a pre-established manner, teach human condition in all its complexity and not only information, learn to sail through uncertainty across archipelagos of certainty, without refusing them, just as advance routes 4 . Although this use of cinema in classrooms is becoming increasingly usual in branches of knowledge of any kind, is still questioned the value of the audio-visual format and fiction narrative in the teaching field regarding other contents. Nonetheless, there are more and more examples of disciplines where traditional teaching can be supplemented with the globalizing vision of the cinema. José Luis Pérez Triviño suggest some examples that help showing both socio-political contexts and moral implications that the law has through narrative fiction in cinema 5 . In the field of Health can be found other examples, like the development of the optional subject called  Investigación a través del cine  or Investigation through Cinema in English, taught by the University School of Nursing, at the University of Barcelona, that ended successfully regarding the teaching value of cinema on this field 6 . In this case, and because of the diversity of disciplines and wisdom 4   DÍAZ, J. T., “El cine, un entorno educativo”, in Comunicar  , nº 26, 2006, page 22. 5   TRIVIÑO, J. L. P., “Cine y derecho. Aplicaciones docentes”  , in Quaderns de cine , n º1, 2007, pages 69-78. 6  ICART ISERN, M. T., DELGADO HITO, M.P., RAMIÓ JOFRÉ, A. M.,  NEVADO SÁNCHEZ, R. e ICART ISERN, M. C., “Evaluación de los conoc imientos adquiridos en la asignatura investigación a través del cine”, in  Revista de Formación e Innovación Educativa Universitaria , vol 3, nº 4, 2010. page 202.  IJOLHI nº 3 ISSN 2515-9208 322 interrelated, cinema means an effective teaching resource to History students. 2. - Cinema and History Because the cinema and TV contents have been traditionally considered only as entertainment media, their use at an academic level still being questioned, being the written discourse the only valid one for most of the historians. Fortunately, this approach is increasingly reduced, thanks to the work of historians and professors 7 . Historical films offer a globalized vision of these aspects interrelated with History and approach different topics to the student that may help in his or her labour of historical comprehension. From an educational point of view it is intended to help the History student to relate matters he perceive as compartmentalized and unconnected in different topics or even subjects. A novel or a movie should not be assumed as rigorous historical documents, but may be able to connect cultural, economic, social and political elements that the student works with in different topics, and that use to be perceived as self-contained ideas 8 . Although the aim of historical films may not be the scientific study, they develop their tale over a background that represent a certain place in a certain moment. For this purpose films are fuelled by events, historical facts, places and other elements of historical atmosphere, 7  As in the case of the professor Enrique San Miguel, with an extensive study work in the fields of History, Law, and Institutions through publications such as  Historia, derecho y cine . Madrid, 2003;  El golpe de estado de Júpiter contra Saturno: Derecho y poder en el cine . Madrid, 2016;  La lectora de Fontevraud:  Derecho e Historia en el Cine .  La Edad Media . Madrid, 2013. 8  MARAÑÓN, A. S. Cine, literatura e historia: novela y cine: recursos para la aproximación a la historia contemporánea . Madrid, 1997, page 16.  IJOLHI nº 3 ISSN 2515-9208 323 though these are mixed with fiction. In this regard, even if the historians research for the truth as principle, the filmmaker only use an historical context for his story. We can differentiate two major types of historical audio-visual contents: in one hand, documentary productions and films whose objective is to represent a character, an event or an historical moment truthfully. In the other hand, fictional productions whose historical component is nothing but an excuse to develop the story line. Both of them may have a sociological and historical value depending on the level of accuracy regarding the reality thanks to the historical setting of the sets, the wardrobe and the customs the film reflects. Technological advances have also changed the available contents. In a market in which technological expansion has caused the proliferation of a large number of different channels with very varied schedules, new products have appeared, with the intention of hoard smaller market niches in view of the fact that the number of consumer has not increased proportionately to the supply. This way, channels fight for smaller markets with more specified contents. An example of this trend are the thematic channels focused on documentaries and History which count on experts and historians and which, despite the fact that they still being contents with a commercial and informative purpose, provide valuable elements for the History student 9 . 3. - Historical Films Challenges Despite the teaching advantages in cinema, there is a risk of trivialization in historical depiction. The limitations in the audio-visual texts production make necessary to compress the information to adapt the product to the lengths and narrative paces in commercial contents. This purpose entail montage and manipulation efforts that, in audio-visual productions, fall on a lot of professionals that serve not only the 9   BERMÚDEZ BRIÑEZ, N., “El cine y el video: recursos didácticos para el estudio y e nseñanza de la historia” in  Revista de Teoría y Didáctica de las Ciencias Sociales , nº 13, 2008, page 109.
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