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Analysis of Factors Affecting Academic Achievement among Senior Secondary School Students

The present study is concerned with assessing academic achievement and analyzing the main and interaction effect of some factors on the academic achievement of senior secondary school students. The present research has been designed with the survey
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  THINK INDIA (Quarterly ournal)   ISSN: 0971-1260 Vol-22-Issue-4-October-December-2019 P a g e | 6004  Analysis of Factors Affecting Academic Achievement among Senior Secondary School Students Sonal Sharma   Research Scholar, Department of Education, Aligarh Muslim University (AMU), Email Id: sonalsharmaeducation@gmail.com   and   Dr. Mohd. Shakir Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Aligarh Muslim University (AMU), Email Id: aligarhshakir@gmail.com Abstract The present study is concerned with assessing academic achievement and analyzing the main and interaction effect of some factors on the academic achievement of senior secondary school students. The present research has been designed with the survey under a descriptive model. Previous class academic records i.e., class 10 marks are used for measuring the academic achievement of senior secondary school students. A sample of 331 senior secondary school students from various schools of Aligarh and Agra districts of Uttar Pradesh were selected. The statistical techniques utilized mean, standard deviation and factorial ANOVA with three-way design i.e., 2×2×2. The findings of the present study revealed that – a) significant main interactional effect of type of school and locale on the academic achievement of senior secondary school students whereas b) religion has no significant main interactional effect on academic achievement of senior secondary school students. Similarly, c) significant two-way interaction of school type and religion on the academic achievement of senior secondary school students were found to be significant as F-ratio i.e., (1, 323) = 5.992, p-value = 0.015<0.05 is significant at 0.05 level of significance. Keywords:  Academic Achievement, Type of School, Locale, Religion and Senior Secondary School Students  THINK INDIA (Quarterly ournal)   ISSN: 0971-1260 Vol-22-Issue-4-October-December-2019 P a g e | 6005  Introduction The future and glory of any nation depends upon the advancement and quality of the educational system as children are the future of a country. Education inculcates the essential and desired abilities, knowledge and skills among the learners. Hence, it leads towards the growth and development of an individual as well as of the nation also. A well-educated citizen accomplishes his desired goals and renders a significant contribution to the progress of the country (Mohamed, Dahie&Warsame, 2018). Thus, the whole education system revolves around academic achievement. Academic achievement refers to the attainment of academic knowledge, skills developed in the school subjects and refers to the educational assessment and evaluation. It denotes the extent to which a learner, teacher and academic institution have achieved their short as well as long term educational objective. Academic achievement signifies learners’ academic abilities and his attitude towards the teaching-learning process. Learning outcomes are measured by academic achievement. Academic success is measured by academic achievement. The outcomes of a teaching-learning process can be evaluated using normative as well as formative processes. Academic achievement is an important indicator of the success and satisfaction of students as well as the effectiveness of the teachers (Martirosyan, Saxon &Wanjohi, 2014; Anticevic, Kardum, Klarin, Sindik&Barac, 2018). It represents performance outcomes that indicate the degree to which students have accomplished general and specific instructional goals determined  by teachers, schools and other stakeholders specifically for schools, colleges and universities. It is a major determinant of the future of the students in particular and the future of the nation in general. Academic achievement of students is affected by several factors including psychological, sociological, demographical etc. (Hijazi&Naqvi, 2006; Kirmani&Siddiquah, 2008; Ray, 2010). In this study, researchers have used high school marks of class 11 students as their academic achievement scores because several studies showed that high school grades are a better predictor of the success of students in comparison to standardized test scores in their later life (Hoffman, 2002; Zheng, Saunders, Shelley & Whalen, 2002).  THINK INDIA (Quarterly ournal)   ISSN: 0971-1260 Vol-22-Issue-4-October-December-2019 P a g e | 6006  The Objective of the Study 1.   To study the effectof school type, locale, religion and their interaction on academic achievement of senior secondary school students. The Hypothesis of the Study  1.   Theeffect of school type, locale, religion and their interaction on the academic achievement of senior secondary school students is not significant. The Rationale of the Study The present study will analyze differences based on the type of school, locale and religion on academic achievement of senior secondary school students which may help the school administration, teachers, policymakers, parents and other stakeholders. The present study also explores the main and interaction effect of school type, locale and religion on the academic achievement of senior secondary school students. Academic achievement occupies a prominent place in determining the future of a child. So, it is the responsibility of teachers, school administrators, parents and other stakeholders to provide a favorable conducive congenial learning environment to the students. It helps educational  psychologists, teachers, and policymakers etc. to know about the various factors which affect the academic achievement of senior secondary school students and provide possible means of intervention for promoting enhanced academic achievement. Thus, on the basis of results appropriate measures and significant steps can be taken to enhance the level of academic achievement among senior secondary school students. Methodology    Variables of the Study 1.   Dependent Variable:  Academic Achievement 2.   Independent Variables:  Type of School, Locale and Religion    Design:  The present study was a descriptive survey in nature for which senior secondary school students were considered as the population for the study.    Sample:  For the present study, the sample consisted of 331 senior secondary school students of Aligarh and Agra districts of Uttar Pradesh, India.  THINK INDIA (Quarterly ournal)   ISSN: 0971-1260 Vol-22-Issue-4-October-December-2019 P a g e | 6007  Table 1:  Showing the Total Sample and its Distribution Total Sample   Type of School   Locale   Religion 331 Government Private Rural Urban Muslim Non-Muslim 187 144 82 249 139 192    Research Tool Used:  For data collection, previous class academic record i.e., class 10 th result (final marks i.e., board result) of class 11 students were used for measuring the academic achievement of senior secondary school students.    Statistical Techniques Used:  For breaking down the data into meaningful results proper statistical techniques were utilized i.e., mean, standard deviation and factorial ANOVA. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 was utilized to analyze the data in the present study. Analysis, Interpretation and Discussion  Appropriate analysis along with its interpretation and discussion is as follows: Objective 1: To study the effect of school type, locale, religion and their interaction on academic achievement of senior secondary school students. To see the differences of school type, locale and religion on academic achievement of senior secondary school students, the following null hypothesis was formulated. Null Hypothesis 1: The effect of school type, locale, religion and their interaction on the academic achievement of senior secondary school students is not significant. For testing the above-stated null hypothesis H 0 1 three-way ANOVA (2×2×2 factorial design) was used. The description of the results showing the main and interaction effects are presented in table 2.  THINK INDIA (Quarterly ournal)   ISSN: 0971-1260 Vol-22-Issue-4-October-December-2019 P a g e | 6008  Table 2: Summary of 2×2×2 (ANOVA) Factorial Design for the Scores of Academic  Achievement According to the School Type, Locale and Religion Source of Variation Mean Sum of Squares df Mean Squares F ratio Sig. n    S  c   h  o  o   l   T  y  p  e Government 68.477 537.942 1 537.942 6.670 0.010** 0.020 Private 75.332    L  o  c  a   l  e  Rural 75.391 556.676 1 556.676 6.903 0.009** 0.021 Urban 68.417    R  e   l   i  g   i  o  n Muslim 70.029 161.049 1 161.049 1.997 0.159 0.006  Non-Muslim 73.780 School Type*Locale 195.667 1 195.667 2.426 0.120 0.007 School Type*Religion 483.257 1 483.257 5.992 0.015* 0.018 Locale*Religion 107.100 1 107.100 1.328 0.250 0.004 School Type*Locale*Religion 277.027 1 277.027 3.435 0.065 0.011 Error 26048.544 323 80.646 Total 1567329.000 331 **Significant at 0.01 level *Significant at 0.05 level From table 2 it is clear that F ratio for senior secondary school students is significant, F (1, 323) = 6.670, p-value = 0.010<0.01 is significant at 0.01 level of significance, which indicates that school type variation makes difference on the academic achievement. From table 2 we can see mean values of academic achievement for senior secondary students studying in private schools [M = 75.332] is higher than that of students studying in government schools [M = 68.477]. Similarly, the F ratio for locale F (1, 323) = 6.903, p-value = 0.009<0.01 is significant at 0.01 level of significance which confirms that the difference in locale (rural and urban) is the real one and not due to the sampling error. The mean value of academic achievement for the senior secondary school students living in rural areas is 75.391 is higher than the senior secondary school students living in urban areas which is 68.417 and these differences are found as statistically significant. From table 2, it is clear that main effect of religion on academic achievement of senior secondary school students is found as not significant, F (1, 323) = 1.997,
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