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Assessing safety culture in hospitals in saudi arabia edited

We are advancing a research that looks at these errors from the context of safety culture in medical practice. Safety culture involves values of individual and groups, competencies, attitudes and behavior patterns for style determination. A research
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  Running head: ASSESSING SAFETY CULTURE IN HOSPITALS 1 Assessing Safety Culture in Hospitals in Saudi Arabia Student’s name Institutional affiliation  Assessing Safety Culture in Hospitals 2 Table of Contents Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 3 An overview of the problem ........................................................................................................... 4 Safety culture in Arab countries ..................................................................................................... 4 The Saudi health care system .......................................................................................................... 6 Safety culture in health care organization in Saudi Arabia............................................................. 7 Patient safety in hospitals ............................................................................................................ 7 Research question ........................................................................................................................... 8 Methodology ................................................................................................................................... 8 Data searching strategy ............................................................................................................... 8 Inclusion and exclusion criteria................................................................................................... 8 Results ......................................................................................................................................... 9 Defining safety culture .................................................................................................................... 9 Dimensions of safety culture .......................................................................................................... 9 Safety attitudes questionnaire (SAQ)............................................................................................ 15 Safety climate survey (SCSu) ....................................................................................................... 16 Safety climate scale (SCSc) .......................................................................................................... 16 SCORE survey .............................................................................................................................. 17 Tools developed by the Stanford group and Singer et al .............................................................. 19 Patient Safety Climate in Healthcare Organizations (PSCHO) .................................................... 20 Manchester Patient Safety Framework (MaPSaF) ........................................................................ 21 Safety culture improvement progress ........................................................................................... 22 Team training ................................................................................................................................ 24 Patient safety team creation .......................................................................................................... 25 Leadership walkarounds ............................................................................................................... 25 Patient safety education ................................................................................................................ 26 Discussion ..................................................................................................................................... 26 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 27 List of Tables Table 1: Safety culture measuring ................................................................................................ 14 Table 2: Types of safety culture maturity ..................................................................................... 22 Table 3: Solutions to enhance safety culture ................................................................................ 24  Assessing Safety Culture in Hospitals 3 Assessing Safety Culture in Hospitals in Saudi Arabia Introduction Healthcare organizations are one of the riskiest environments when it comes to safety (Colla, Bracken, Kinney & Weeks, 2005). There is a need to move from holistic healthcare service provision to evidence-based that look into safety of the patient and inherent cultures. The shift is triggered by the interrelated factors contributing to the complex process of healthcare. The probability of developing errors and risks are exacerbated by human, organizational, and material factors. According to a report released by the Institute of Medicine (2000), there are 44,000 and 98,000 error related medical complications annually in the United States of America (US0 alone. The report is a reminiscent that errors are considered as the most leading cause of mortality in the region. Exuberating the data from the Institute of Medicine report is that there is approximately $29 billion lost annually due to errors in healthcare (Brown & Wolosin, 2013). We are advancing a research that looks at these errors from the context of safety culture in medical practice. Safety culture involves values of individual and groups, competencies, attitudes and behavior patterns for style determination . A research on “safety culture relationships with hospital nursing” showed that a discussion on safety culture and error in medical practitioners are essential in delineating commitment and proficiency of health service  practitioners and organizations (Brown & Wolosin, 2013). Organizations with a positive safety culture help develop interactions that lead to mutual trust, shared perception concerning the significance of safety and confidence based on the effectiveness of prevention strategies adopted (Health and Safety Commission, 1993). With the gap in knowledge and applicability there is need to contextualize a safety culture debate within hospitals in Saudi Arabia. We adopt case- based analysis to assess the effectiveness of safety culture in healthcare and its function to  Assessing Safety Culture in Hospitals 4 minimize errors. The adoption of Saudi Arabia hospitals will help in evidence-based patient-centered models of promoting recovery of patients using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). An overview of the problem The adoption of specific strategies has demonstrated the importance of patient safety across the world and specifically, Saudi Arabia. The strategies improve the quality and safety of healthcare while minimizing instances of harm. In the healthcare system, safety culture is recognized as a strategy that improves the safety of care and to work against recurrence of adverse events (Pronovost & Sexton, 2005). For long, complex system errors have been subjected to debates due to their adverse outcomes. The debates seemed to have triggered differences among scholars where there are cases of patient safety (Elmontsri et al., 2017 and Khater et al., 2015). Annually, ten million patients are reported to have complications caused by unsafe healthcare practices, resulting in disabilities and deaths (Leotsakos et al., 2014). World Health Organization (WHO) established that there is approximately one in a million cases of harm in air traffic accident, while the chance of being harmed as a result of health safety is approximated at one in three hundred (Leotsakos et al., 2014). Safety culture in Arab countries Patient safety improvement has been recorded as the major target of both the developing and the developed worlds (Donaldson & Philip, 2004). The combined global initiative of the World Alliance for Patient Safety (WAPS) and the WHO have motivated developing nations to adopt a cumulative effort to assist in the assessment of the measure of the problem. A study in Arab countries evaluated the safety of the patients through the standards of the Patient Safety Friendly Hospital Initiative (PSFHI) under the auspice of Agency for Healthcare Research and  Assessing Safety Culture in Hospitals 5 Quality (2019). The research indicated that culture and patient safety would aid in challenging errors in practice. The scope of PSFHI shows a model developed to help support the institutions in different nations in launching a patient safety program as also demonstrated by the WHO in 2007. The approach is important in solving safety of patients in the region (Siddiqi, Elasady, Khorshid, 2012). The PSFHI has been used to assess ministries of health in seven developing countries including Morocco, Egypt, Pakistan, Yemen, Tunisia and Jordan, where in each country, a single hospital was assessed according to the PSFHI standards (Westat et al., 2019). The results indicated that neither of the hospitals attained a 50% baseline score in the PSFHI standards. Moreover, the findings indicated that leadership and management were the major areas that were required in many institutions. Inpatient safety, leadership plays an important role as it recognizes safe care and a problem related to the system (Clarke et al., 2007). In addition, it was found that  patients in these countries do not have a voice when it comes to the decision-making process especially, on the kind of care they receive. WHO (2003) carried out a study which established that Eastern Mediterranean region is involved in the accreditation programs. The program has enabled a number of countries in the region to implement and develop accreditation programs for healthcare institutions (El-Jardali, 2006). It is important noting that reports by Al Awa et al. (2011) have shown that accreditation  programs have assisted in perception improvement on patient’s care safety  and quality in Saudi Arabia ’s healthcare facilities . Another report carried out in Kenya, Egypt, Morocco, Jordan, South Africa, Sudan, Yemen and Tunisia in the assessment of the nature and frequency of adverse events to patients in these regions indicated that out of 15,548, 8.2% has one adverse event (Wilson et al., 2012). Of the reported cases, 83% of the adverse effects were established to
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