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Cinchona by Mr. Mohit

1. Cinchona Bark Presentation By:- Mr. Mohit Thakre H.O.D. Pharmacy Department (Oriental Institute of Pharmacy, Lalburra) 2. Cinchona Bark ã Synonyms :- Jesuit’s…
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  • 1. Cinchona Bark Presentation By:- Mr. Mohit Thakre H.O.D. Pharmacy Department (Oriental Institute of Pharmacy, Lalburra)
  • 2. Cinchona Bark • Synonyms :- Jesuit’s Bark. Peruvian Bark. • Biological Source :- It is the dried bark which is obtain from plant “Cinchona Calisaya”; “Cinchona Officinalis”. It contain not less than 6% of total alkaloid of cinchona. • Family :- Rubiaceae.
  • 3. Cultivation 1. Most of the cinchona species grow in sub- tropical or tropical climates at a height of about 1000-3000 meters. 2. The temperature required 60-75 F. 3. The acidic soil of pH 4.2-5.6 with small amount of nitrogen required for favorable growth. 4. A distance of 2X2 meters maintain between two plant. 5. The germination takes place 3-6 weeks. The highest alkaloid obtain at age of 6-10 year plant.
  • 4. Collection 1. The bark is collected by ‘Coppicing’ method. 2. The bark is stripped off and dried in sunlight and further by artificial heat. 3. During drying temperature is maintain below 175F. The drug loses upto 70% of its weight while drying. 4. The quills of drug are packed in gunny bag and marketed. 5. India exported Quinine and its salt of about Rs.299.0 lakhs during 1995-1996.
  • 5. Geographical Source • Cinchona is found in following countries :- 1. India. 2. Bolivia. 3. Columbia. 4. Peru. 5. Srilanka. 6. Indonesia.
  • 6. Macroscopic Characters -:Stem Bark:- Colour:- Dull Brown Grey. Odour:- Slight and Characteristics. Taste:- Intensely Bitter and Astringent. Shape:- In form of Quills and Curved Piece. Size:- Upto 30cm. in length about 2 to 6 mm. in thickness.
  • 7. Macroscopic Characters -:Root Bark:- Colour:- The inner and outer surface are in brown colour. Odour:- Slight and Characteristic. Taste:- Bitter. Shape:- Curved, Twisted or Irregular channelled. Size:- 2 to 7cm. in length.
  • 8. Appeareance Fig.:- Cinchona Plant and Bark
  • 9. Microscopic Characters
  • 10. Chemical Constituents 1. Quinine. 2. Qunidine. 3. Cinchonine. 4. Cinchonidine. 5. Cupreine. 6. Hydroquinine. 7. Quinic Acid.
  • 11. Chemical Structure Quinidine CinchonidineCuperine
  • 12. Extraction of Quinine Bark is powdered and extracted + Benzene or Toluene. (Alkali) Alkaloids are Extracted with Dil. Sulphuric acid. By bringing the acid extract to neutrality. Quinine sulphate seprates, as it is sparigly soluble.
  • 13. Chemical Test 1. Heat the powdered drug in a dried test tube with little ‘Glacial Acetic Acid’. The Purple Vapour show the confirmation of cinchona. 2. The powdered drug gives Emerald Green colour with ‘Bromine Water and Dil. Ammonia Solution’. 3. Quinidine solution gives a White Precipitation with ‘Silver Nitrate Solution’; which is soluble in ‘Nitric Acid’.
  • 14. Dose 1. Cinchona Powder:- 0.3 to 1 gm. Taken orally with Water or Milk. 2. Quinine Sulphate:- 1 gm. daily for 2 days than 600mg. daily for 5 days. 3. Quinidine Sulphate:- 0.2 to 0.4 gm. every two to four hours to a total dose of 3 gm. daily in Atrial Fibrillation.
  • 15. Uses 1. Cinchona Bark used as an ‘Antimalarial’ drug. 2. It is used as ‘Stomachics’ due to its bitter taste. 3. Quindine is valuable in prevantion of ‘Atrial Fibrillation’. 4. Quinidine is primarly a ‘Cardiac Depressant’ and used to prevent certain ‘Arrhythmias’. 5. It has also ‘Antipyretics’ action.
  • 16. Substitutes 1. Cuprea Bark is a coppery red coloured drug, contains Quinine, Quinidine and other alkaloids which resemble to those from Cinchona bark. The bark may also contain Cupreine. 2. False Cuprea Bark contain traces of Cinchonine, Cinchonamine but not contain Quinine.
  • 17. Refrences  Kokate C.K., Purohit A.P., Gokhale S.B.; “Pharmacognosy”; Fourty Frist Edition; Year 2008 {May}; Published By- Nirali Prakashan; Page no.- 13.54-13.59.
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