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  开题报告   文题目 孟加拉国关于地震灾民避难和紧急救济的调查建议和抗震结构设计。 英文题目 Investigation and proposal on earthquake victims refuge and emergency relief in Bangladesh and Design of earthquake relief Structure. 开题要求 开题之前,必须阅读至少 30 篇参考文献(外文 10 篇以上) 一、选题来源及意义 Bangladesh is a south Asian developing country which is used to struggle with variousnatural disasters and the earthquake is one of them. Bangladesh is of the most earthquakevenerable countries of the world. [1]  Geographical location of Bangladesh makes it ideallysuited to earthquake. Bangladesh is surrounded by the regions of high seismicity whichinclude the Himalayan Arc and shillong plateau in the north, the Burmese Arc, ArakanYoma anticlinorium in the east and complex Naga-Disang-Jaflong thrust zones in thenortheast. [2]  It is also the site of the Dauki Fault system along with numerous subsurfaceactive faults and a flexure zone called Hinge Zone. [2]  These weak regions are believed to provide the necessary zones for movements within the basin area. Bangladesh is theworld’s most densely populated area, any future earthquake shall affect more people per unit area than any other seismically active regions of the world. Here I have tried to discussabout the risks of earthquake disaster in Bangladesh and the historical earthquakes thatoccurred in Bangladesh and some objectives and methodology. 姓名:   胡逸夫 学号 2017590076 - 表   2.1 -  二、文献综述 (目前本文研究的问题已经达到的水平和存在的问题) Disaster:  A disaster is a natural or man-made event that negatively affects life, property,livelihood or industry often resulting in permanent changes to human societies, ecosystemsand environment. As the definition suggests, disasters are highly disruptive events that cause suffering,deprivation, hardship, injury and even death, as a result of direct injury, disease, theinterruption of commerce and business, and the partial or total destruction of criticalinfrastructure such as homes, hospitals, and other buildings, roads, bridges, power lines,etc. Disasters can be caused by naturally occurring events, such as earthquakes, hurricanes,flooding, or tornadoes, or they can be due to man-made events, either accidental (such asan accidental toxic spill or nuclear power plant event), or deliberately caused (such asvarious terrorist bombings and poisonings). [19] Types of disasters:  Disasters can take many different forms, and the duration can rangefrom an hourly disruption to days or weeks of ongoing destruction. Below is a list of thevarious types of disasters – both natural and man-made or technological in nature – that canimpact a community. [20] Disaster management:  Disaster management aims to reduce, or avoid, the potential lossesfrom hazards, assure prompt and appropriate assistance to victims of disaster, and achieverapid and effective recovery. The Disaster management cycle illustrates the ongoing process by which governments, businesses, and civil society plan for and reduce the impactof disasters, react during and immediately following a disaster, and take steps to recover after a disaster has occurred. Appropriate actions at all points in the cycle lead to greater  preparedness, better warnings, reduced vulnerability or the prevention of disasters duringthe next iteration of the cycle. Disaster Recovery (DR):  A disaster can be anything that puts an organization's operationsat risk, from a cyber attack to equipment failures to natural disasters. The goal with DR isfor a business to continue operating as close to normal as possible. The disaster recovery process includes planning and testing, and may involve a separate physical site for restoring operations. The RPO and RTO help administrators choose optimal disaster recovery strategies,technologies and procedures. - 表   2.2 -  Earthquake:  An earthquake  is an intense shaking of Earth’s surface. The shaking iscaused by movements in Earth’s outermost layer. [4]  Most earthquakes are minor tremors,while larger earthquakes usually begin with slight tremors, rapidly take the form of one or more violent shocks, and end in vibrations of gradually diminishing force calledaftershocks. Earthquake is a form of energy of wave motion, which srcinates in a limitedregion and then spreads out in all directions from the source of disturbance. It usually lastsfor a few seconds to a minute. Causes of Earthquake:  An earthquake is caused by a sudden slip on a fault. The tectonic  plates are always slowly moving, but they get stuck at their edges due to friction. When thestress on the edge overcomes the friction, there is an earthquake that releases energy inwaves that travel through the earth's crust and cause the shaking that we feel. [5]  InCalifornia there are two plates - the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate. The PacificPlate consists of most of the Pacific Ocean floor and the California Coast line. The NorthAmerican Plate comprises most the North American Continent and parts of the AtlanticOcean floor. The primary boundary between these two plates is the San Andreas Fault. TheSan Andreas Fault is more than 650 miles long and extends to depths of at least 10 miles.Many other smaller faults like the Hayward (Northern California) and the San Jacinto(Southern California) branch from and join the San Andreas Fault Zone.  [5]  The surface of the Earth is in continuous slow motion. This is plate tectonics--the motion of immense rigid plates at the surface of the Earth in response to flow of rock within the Earth. The platescover the entire surface of the globe. Since they are all moving they rub against each other in some places (like the San Andreas Fault in California), sink beneath each other in others(like the Peru-Chile Trench along the western border of South America), or spread apartfrom each other (like the Mid-Atlantic Ridge). At such places the motion isn't smooth--the plates are stuck together at the edges but the rest of each plate is continuing to move, so therocks along the edges are distorted (what we call "strain"). As the motion continues, thestrain builds up to the point where the rock cannot withstand any more bending. With alurch, the rock breaks and the two sides move. An earthquake is the shaking that radiatesout from the breaking rock. [6]   C urrently the level of problems and problems existing in this paper : The Main problems is lack of data collection from Bangladesh. Usually online is notsufficient for collecting data. Another Problem is that Lack of communication of Bangladeshi Weather Office. Some software related problems is existing. But our teachersand seniors are really very helpful. Reference:   1. Prof. Md. Abdullah Al Zaman and Nusrath Jahan Monira, Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh, “A Study of Earthquakes inBangladesh and the Data Analysis of the Earthquakes that were generated InBangladesh and Its Very Close Regions for the Last Forty Years (1976-2016),”Published date: July 28, 2017 2. Sharmin Sultana, Utkalita Rahman and Ummeh Saika, Department of Geography andEnvironment, Jahngirnagar University Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. “EARTHQUAKE,CAUSE SUSCEPTIBILITY AND RISK MITIGATION IN BANGLADESH”, VOL.2, NO. 2, JUNE 2013.3. MH Ali and JR Choudhury, Dhaka University, Dhaka,” Tectonic significance andearthquake occurrences in Bangladesh” 7th Geological Conference, BangladeshGeological Society, 1989.4. Heather Doyle, Program Manager,NASA, NASA Space Place, December 14 th , 2018. 5. “What is an earthquake and what causes them to happen?” DOI InspectorGeneral, U.S. Department of the Interior, White house. 6. Dr. Gerard Fryer , Hawaii Institute of Geophysics & Planetology , University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, “What causes earthquakes?”7. "Repeating earthquakes". United States Geological Survey. January 29, 2009.Retrieved May 11, 2009.8. Bruce A.Bolt, Professor Emeritus of Earth and Planetary Science, Unicersity of California, Berkeley. Authore of Earthquakes: A Primer and others.ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA, Dec 12, 2018.  9. Bruce A.Bolt, Professor Emeritus of Earth and Planetary Science, Unicersity of California, Berkeley. Authore of Earthquakes: A Primer and others.ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA, Dec 12, 2018.10. Bruce A.Bolt, Professor Emeritus of Earth and Planetary Science, Unicersity of California, Berkeley. Authore of Earthquakes: A Primer and others.ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA, Dec 12, 2018.11.  “What are the Different Types Of Earthquakes?” UNIVERSE TODAY, “Spaceand Astronomy news” December 4, 2010. 12. Angel fire_funky Article. “Types of Earthquake” .  13. Prof. Dr. Marco Bohnhoff, “The enormous load exerted by dam reservoirsresulted in the strongest ever induced earthquake.” Interview taken by “EarthSystem Knowledge Platform (KSKP)” 14.  Das, Biswajyoti (4 January 2016).  "Quake strikes northeast India, Bangladesh; 11dead, nearly 200 hurt" . Reuters . Retrieved 23 October 2018 . 15. "Nepal Says Earthquake Rebuilding Cost to Exceed $10 Billion". 28 April 2015.Retrieved 22 May 2017 – via om. 16. "Fresh earthquake kills scores in Nepal and India". Yahoo News. 12 May 2015.Retrieved 13 May 2015.   17. "Pager – M 6.9 – Sikkim, India". 18 September 2011. Archived from the srcinal on23 September 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2011.18. ISC (2016), ISC-GEM Global Instrumental Earthquake Catalogue (1900–2009),Version 3.0, International Seismological Centre19. KATHRYN PATRICELLI, MA. Introduction of Disaster, “An American AddictionCenters Resource”.20. “Types of Disasters”, Natural and Man-Made. 21 . Mohd. Khalid Ansari, studied at Doctor of Philosophy Degrees, “What are thetypes of disasters?” “National Institute of Disaster Management” February 8,2018 22. Corina Warfield and Hari Srinivas, Article, “disaster management Cycle” 
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