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Festival houses in Scandinavian culture

Northern Europe is marked by some of the slowest and most recent urbanizations in Europe. In Norway, one of the most recent nations to experience urbanization processes, the majority of people lived in non-urbanized areas as recently as 1945. Denmark
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  223 S󰁴󰁥󰁩󰁮󰁡󰁲 A󰁡󰁳 Festival houses in Scandinavian culture Northern Europe is marked by some o the slowest and most recent urbanizations in Europe. In Norway, one o the most recent nations to experience urbanization processes, the majority o people lived in non-urbanized areas as recently as 1945. Denmark and Sweden had been prosperous empires or centuries, while Finland, Norway and Iceland, by contrast, were to start the process o state ormation rom the 19 th  century onwards. Tis article aims to demonstrate that the topic o estival culture, estival houses and the creation o the nation state became influenced by new growing cities in Scandinavia. In addition, it ocuses on the role o cultural activities in urbanization and the creation o new modern nation states.Tis article will try to sweep over the Scandinavian countries, but it is impossible to give a comprehensive overview over the topic. However, by ocusing on some o the aspects in some specific cases, it tends to give an understanding o the subject and how the development o estivals and estival houses was, as well as the develop-ment o cultural practices in urban areas in connection with cultural activities. Even though the urban culture and the nation states o Scandinavia developed individu-ally, there are significant similarities which are emphasized in this article. Tere was a pronounced growing awareness o cultural activities during the 19 th  and especially the 20 th  century in most Nordic countries. Tis awareness was significantly urban, and it was closely related to the development o the modern post-war welare state. Tis examination and discussion o the topic o estival houses in Scandinavia is an attempt to contextualize the development o both culture – especially music and con-cert halls – in Scandinavia, as well as trying to see them as a means o providing estivals a sae haven – a estival house. 1. From Berckentins and Schimmelmanns palæ to Koncertpalæet Te first example discussed is the “Te Nordic Music Festival”/ Den nordiske Musikfest  . Tis is the oldest continuously running music estival in the Scandinavian countries. When it was first established as a Danish initiative in 1888, the estival house Koncert-palæet in Copenhagen was specifically built or the event. At first, the house was named Berckentins Palæ (mansion) because it was part o a house owned by Christian August  224 1  Te sources or this hall is published by the Royal Danish Library: A󰁨󰁬󰁧󰁲󰁥󰁮 J󰁥󰁮󰁳󰁥󰁮, Odd Fellow Palæet; For more inormation on Berckentin see B󰁲󰁥󰁧󰁮󰁳󰁢󰁯, Berckentin; on the Odd Fellow palæet c. 󰁨󰁹󰁧󰁥󰁳󰁥󰁮 – V󰁩󰁩󰁮󰁨󰁯󰁬󰁴 N󰁩󰁥󰁬󰁳󰁥󰁮 – S󰁥󰁲󰁲󰁩󰁴󰁳󰁬󰁥󰁶, Odd Fellow Palæet. 2  S󰁯󰁭󰁭󰁥󰁲, Operaen på Dokøen, 92–94. 3  C󰁡󰁭󰁰󰁢󰁥󰁬󰁬 O󰁲󰁲, Dynasticism, 447; about the garbage dump: A󰁮󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁳󰁥󰁮, Stadens ureenlighed, 73–75. 4  A󰁨󰁬󰁧󰁲󰁥󰁮 J󰁥󰁮󰁳󰁥󰁮, Odd Fellow Palæeet. 5  C󰁡󰁭󰁰󰁢󰁥󰁬󰁬 O󰁲󰁲, Dynasticism, 436.  von Berckentin (1694–1758). Next, it was called Schimmelmanns Palæ (mansion) because it was sold to Count Ernst Heinrich Schimmelmann (1747–1831). Te man-sion with the palæ was placed in the urban district o Frederiksstaden in Copenhagen. 1 Te development o Frederiksstaden as a new urban district commenced in the 18 th century, and became part o an urban development o Copenhagen. Trough the development o the harbour area, an area that was partly a landfill, partly an exercise ground, new principles o urban development emerged in Denmark. Four mansions were built around the Palace square o Amalienborg. Te urther urban development o Copenhagen out rom the ocal point o Frederiksstaden and the Koncertpalæ was partly used as a motivation or the location o the new opera house in Copenhagen in 2005. Te new opera house is located on the opposite side o Amalienborg, on the sight line connecting the two buildings, and as such it connects Fredriksstaden’s two central squares. In this way, the estival house established as a concert building dur-ing the Nordic Music Festival o 1888 lay the oundation or uture urban develop-ment o cultural buildings such as the new opera house built in 2005. 2 At the end o the 18 th  century, Count and Countess Schimmelmann had used to arrange dinner parties with both theatre and concert perormances in the mansion, so the building had been a place or cultural activities even beore it became a estival house. Te social and cultural gatherings held in this part o Copenhagen maniested the role o the new quarter as a central area or members o the nobility as well as the Danish royal amily. Fredrik V created the new Frederiksstaden district in Copen-hagen, including the Amalienborg complex which later became the palace o King Christian VII when a fire damaged the Christiansborg palace in 1794. Te urban area was located in a district that or centuries had been a landfill. 3 Te activities in the Schimmelmanns palæ initially represented the culture o the urban nobility o the 18 th  century. Te close connection o the mansion with the Dan-ish court meant that the musical activities included both Prince Christian (VIII) and his first wie Charlotte Frederikke. 4  Clarissa Campbell Orr has stated that this kind o activity was part o the old order, where the ‘court was the most important institution or rulers’ and where ‘the Crown managed its relationship with the elites, exploiting its role as the ount o honours’. Te culture was part o a system where networks o ‘clientage and patronage intersected’. 5 S󰁴󰁥󰁩󰁮󰁡󰁲 A󰁡󰁳  225 Fig. 1: Te main axes of Frederiksstaden in Copenhagen, seen from the cupola of the Marble church. Te new Opera on the islet in the background connecting the new concert halls with the area for the old ones. (Foto: Ib Rasmussen – Eget verk, Offentlig eiendom) [https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index. php?curid=2294120, 26.3.2019]. Festival houses in Scandinavian culture  226 6  J󰁥󰁮󰁳󰁥󰁮, Niels W. Gade. Nevertheless, this old system was about to vanish rom the cultural, social and political landscape o Copenhagen at the time when the invitations to Den nordiske  Musikfest   were to be sent out in 1888. Te new concert hall built or the occasion, in act, became in itsel a representative o the new and emerging orm o public lie, one more open and less elitist than that which prevailed during Count Schimmel-mann’s years in the mansion. Te establishment o the venue in 1888 coincided with some other important trends. One such trend was the nation state building process occurring in the Nordic countries, associated with the National Romantic cultural trend. Te music scientist Niels Martin Jensen has characterized the estival as influ-enced by the ‘national romance’s national tone’. Te tone ‘seems to have ound a sig-nificant echo at this first Nordic music estival’, he adds. 6  New cultural and musical ashions tended to be less elitist as well. Some o the new and promoted values were influenced by the role o the people o the nation and their culture, which became part o artistic content and cultural expression. Jensen later called Den nordiske Musikfest    Fig. 2: Concertpalæet (today the Odd Fellow mansion), srcinally the Berckentine mansion in Bred- gate, Amalienborg, Copenhagen. Built in the period of 1751–55, and used as a concert hall at the first Nordic Music Festival in 1888. (Foto: WPCOM/Heb). S󰁴󰁥󰁩󰁮󰁡󰁲 A󰁡󰁳  227 7  J󰁥󰁮󰁳󰁥󰁮, Dansk Nationalromantik, 37–56. 8  J󰁥󰁮󰁳󰁥󰁮, Niels W. Gade. 9  Tere are reerences to this palace both on Danish Wikipedia and in B󰁯󰁪󰁳󰁥󰁮, A Møns historie, 71; Odd Fellow has some historical inormation on the later named Odd Fellow Palæet: https://op.nu/historie/schimmelmann-og-palaeet/ and https://op.nu/historie/berckentin-1751-1888/ [4.2.2019]. 10  A󰁨󰁬󰁧󰁲󰁥󰁮 J󰁥󰁮󰁳󰁥󰁮, Odd Fellow Palæet. a Scandinavian maniestation o ‘national art with Nordic roots’. 7  Instead o inviting the noble elites and the court to a social and cultural gathering in a salon at the man-sion, a much more open invitation was made to groups representing broader strata to the new concert hall in Berckentin’s and Schimmelmann’s old mansion. Now, civilian people rom the bourgeoisie and the emerging urban middle classes participated in cultural lie as well. 8 Te event was a common Scandinavian enterprise with the idea that the Nordic people o Sweden, Norway and Denmark had interests that were similar in many respects, at least within the fields o music and culture. Te venue was meant to be a part o the more commercial activities planned or Den Nordiske Industri-, Land-brugs- og Kunstudstilling   (Te Nordic Exhibition o Industry, Agriculture and Fine Art), held in another adjacent quarter in Copenhagen, in the amusement park ivoli. ivoli, however, was not meant to be a venue or concerts, because Schimmelmanns Palæ was supposed to have been renovated and rebuilt into a modern concert house by the time o the commercial event in ivoli and the cultural event in Koncert-palæet. Te purpose o the rebuilding project was to modiy the old mansion into a concert hall or regular public concerts. Te rebuilding project was in the hands o a private limited company called “Koncertpalaiset a/s”, who owned the concert hall until the organization Odd Fellow took over in 1900. Te connection between ivoli and Koncertpalæet was to be strengthened by the new concert hall, which or years to come was to be an arena or the ivoli orchestra’s public and popular concerts perormed in the estival house o Koncertpalæet. 9 Te reconstruction o the concert hall in Schimmelmanns palæ, however, was not completed when the Nordic Music Festival started. Te concrete was still wet, and an artificial roo made out o a stretched-out sail was covering the hall. Even so, the con-certs were considered successul, partly due to nice summer weather. Another ele-ment making the event a success was how the concerts presented a new artistic and trending National Romantic approach by promoting Scandinavian composers, solo-ists and choirs as vital to the artistic profile. Te new, less elitist and more democratic trend affected the popularity o the concerts as well. A key success actor was that the grand finale was a ‘people’s concert’, perorming highlights rom ormer concerts and inviting a wider public through reduced ticket prices. 10  No one seems to have been disturbed by the unfinished concert hall’s smell o wet concrete under its cloth roo. A Festival houses in Scandinavian culture
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