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Mangrove Biomass and Stored Carbon in relation to Soil Properties: A Case Study from Indian Sundarbans

We evaluated the biomass and stored carbon in three dominant mangrove species of Indian Sundarbans in relation to specific soil parameters (soil salinity, pH, organic carbon, nitrate-nitrogen, phosphate-phosphorus, sulphate-sulphur and potassium).
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    I nternational  J ournal  for  Pharmaceutical Research  Scholars ( IJPRS )  V-3, I-2, 2014 ISSN No: 2277 - 7873   RESEARCH ARTICLE  © Copyright reserved by IJPRS   Impact Factor = 1.0285  58 Mangrove Biomass and Stored Carbon in relation to Soil Properties: A Case Study from Indian Sundarbans Mahua Roy Chowdhury 1* , Sufia Zaman 1 , Chandra Shekhar Jha 2 , Kasturi Sengupta 1 , Abhijit Mitra 1   1  Department of Marine Science, University of Calcutta, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road,  Kolkata  –  700 019, India. 2  National Remote Sensing Centre (ISRO), Hyderabad  –   500 625, A.P., India.   Manuscript No: IJPRS/V3/I2/00156, Received On: 01/04/2014, Accepted On: 08/04/2014   ABSTRACT We evaluated the biomass and stored carbon in three dominant mangrove species of Indian Sundarbans in relation to specific soil parameters (soil salinity, pH, organic carbon, nitrate-nitrogen, phosphate- phosphorus, sulphate-sulphur and potassium). The study was conducted in two sampling stations with contrasting physico-chemical variables preferably salinity. The growth and stored carbon was more in the species of Lothian Island (located in the western Indian Sundarbans) compared to Bonnie camp (located in the central Indian Sundarbans). ANOVA results identified soil salinity, organic carbon, nitrate-nitrogen and phosphate-phosphorus as the primary drivers influencing the growth and carbon storage potential of the selected species. KEYWORDS Indian Sundarbans, Mangroves, Soil parameters, Above Ground Biomass (AGB), Above Ground Carbon (AGC) INTRODUCTION The UN-REDD Programme is the United  Nations collaborative initiative on Reducing Emission from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) in developing countries. The REDD+ Partnership serves as an interim  platform for its countries to scale up actions and finance for initiatives to reduce emission from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in developing countries. This process of deforestation and forest degradation can be minimized through afforestation and conservation of ambient environment through sustainable livelihood, policy framing and several technological developments. Sundarbans, a potential reservoir of carbon (Mitra et al  ., 2011) is exposed to several threats like hypersalinity, clearing of mangrove forests for shrimp culture, cutting of mangroves for timber and fuel wood collection, erosion of river  banks etc. These threats shrink the carbon storage potential of Sundarban mangrove ecosystem (Chaudhuri and Choudhury, 1994; Mitra and Banerjee, 2005). On this background, the present paper aims to evaluate the biomass and carbon storage in three dominant mangroves species from two selected stations namely Lothian Island (88 0 20'29.32"E and 21 0 38'21.20"N) and Bonnie Camp (88 0 37'21.50"E and 21 0 49'48.80"N) located in the western and central Indian Sundarbans respectively. The forest growth in deltaic Sundarbans is a function of edaphic factors and topography. *Address for Correspondence: Mahua Roy Chowdhury Department of Marine Science, University of Calcutta, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata  –  700 019, India. E-Mail Id :   mahua.rishra@gmail.com  Mangrove Biomass and Stored Carbon in relation to Soil Properties: A Case Study from Indian Sundarbans © Copyright reserved by IJPRS Impact Factor = 1.0285  59 The characteristic of the soil in the study sites was therefore evaluated considering the levels of salinity, pH, organic carbon, nitrate-nitrogen,  phosphate-phosphorus, sulphate-sulphur and  potassium in soil. MATERIALS AND METHOD Selection of Sampling Station The mighty River Ganga emerges from Gangotri glacier, about 7,010 m above the mean sea level in the Himalayas and flows down to the Bay of Bengal covering a distance of 2,525 km. At the apex of Bay of Bengal, a delta has  been formed which is recognized as one of the most diversified and productive ecosystems of the tropics and is referred to as the Indian Sundarbans. The deltaic complex has an area of 9,630 sq. km and houses about 102 islands (Mitra, 2000). We selected two sampling stations (Lothian Island and Bonnie Camp in the western and central Indian Sundarbans respectively) (Fig. 1) in this deltaic complex on the basis of significant variation in salinity as recorded by earlier workers (Mitra et al  ., 2009; Sengupta et al  ., 2013). The entire work was conducted during December 2012 and 2013. Figure 1: Location of sampling stations of Indian Sundarbans Analysis of Soil Parameters In the study area, sampling plots of 5 m × 5 m were considered for soil sampling. Care was taken to collect the soil samples within the same distance from the estuarine edge, tidal creeks and the same micro-topography. Under such conditions, spatial variability of external  parameters such as tidal amplitude and frequency of inundation   (Ovalle et al  ., 1990) inputs of material from the adjacent bay/estuary and soil granulometry and salinity (Lacerda et al  ., 1993) are minimal. Samples were collected from the selected plots in each station with the help of a steel corer (40 cm length and 5 cm diameter) by gently intruding it into the sediments to a maximum depth of 40 cm during low tide period. The upper 40 cm of each core was sliced into 10 cm fractions (fractions are 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, 30-40 cm) with the help of PVC spatula. Each core section was placed in aluminum foil and packed in ice for transport. In the laboratory, the collected samples were carefully sieved and homogenized to remove roots and other plant and animal debris prior to oven-drying to constant weight at 105 0 C. Three replicates from each sampling station were analyzed at different depths. The result represents the average value at each depth. Soil Salinity Soil salinity was determined in supernatant of 1:10 soil-double distilled water mixtures using refractometer. Soil pH  The measurement of soil pH was done in the field with a micro pH meter (Systronics, Model  No, 362) with glass  –   calomel electrode (sensitivity ± 0.01) and standardized with buffer 7.0. Soil Organic Carbon The total organic carbon in the soil sample was analysed by rapid dichromate oxidation method of Walkley and Black (1934). Soil Nutrients (nitrate, phosphate, sulphate and potassium) Soil nitrate and phosphate was analysed by taking 30 gm soil sample and adding 75 ml of 2 mol·L  –  1  potassium chloride (KCl). The mixture was then shaken until well mixed and allowed to stand overnight. After 24 hr, 4 ml of the supernatant was collected for the estimation of nitrate-nitrogen and phosphate-phosphorus content of the soil sample using standard  Mangrove Biomass and Stored Carbon in relation to Soil Properties: A Case Study from Indian Sundarbans © Copyright reserved by IJPRS Impact Factor = 1.0285  60 spectrophotometric methods (Grasshoff et al. , 1983). For sulphate-sulphur analysis, 20 gm of soil sample was taken and dissolved in 100 ml double distilled water. After vigorous shaking for 1 hr, the solution was filtered through Millipore filter paper (0.45µm). The filtrate was used to determine sulphate-sulphur concentration turbidometrically as per the  procedure outlined in APHA (1985). Soil  potassium content was analysed by flame  photometry as per the standard procedure outlined by Prasad (2005). Above Ground Biomass (AGB) Estimation The biomass of above ground structures were estimated as per the procedure outlined by Husch et al.  (1982) for stem, Chidumaya (1990) for branch and Mitra et al  . (2011) for leaf. Above Ground Carbon (AGC) Estimation The fresh samples of stem, branch and leaf were collected for each species and oven dried at 70° C. Direct estimation of percent carbon in the above ground vegetative structures of each species was done by Vario MACRO elementar CHN analyzer, after grinding and random mixing the oven-dried stems, branches and leaves separately. Statistical Analysis To assess whether AGB, AGC and selected soil  parameters varied significantly between the stations (Lothian Island and Bonnie Camp) and years, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was  performed considering the data collected during the study period. It is to be noted that every data  point of the selected environmental variables for each sampling station (considered for ANOVA) is the mean of three readings. Possibilities less than 0.05 (p<0.05) were considered statistically significant. RESULTS The soil salinity (average of four depths) in Lothian Island and Bonnie Camp were 11.40  psu and 14.59 psu respectively in 2012 and 11.19 psu and 14.62 psu respectively in 2013. The soil salinity exhibited an increase with depth in both the stations and years (Fig. 2 and 3). ANOVA results exhibit significant variation in soil salinity between stations, but not between years (Table 1). -50-40-30-20-10010200-10 cm10-20 cm20-30 cm30-40 cmDepth (cm)    S  a   l   i  n   i   t  y   (  p  s  u   ) depthLothianIslandBonnieCamp   Figure 2: Depth wise variation of soil salinity during 2012 -50-40-30-20-10010200-10 cm10-20 cm20-30 cm30-40 cmDepth (cm)    S  a   l   i  n   i   t  y   (  p  s  u   ) depthLothianIslandBonnieCamp   Figure 3: Depth wise variation of soil salinity during 2013 Soil pH Variation in average soil pH (average of four depths) was observed between the selected stations. The soil pH in Lothian Island and Bonnie Camp were 7.61 and 7.65 respectively in 2012 and 7.61 and 7.64 respectively in 2013. A decrease in soil pH was observed with depth irrespective of stations and years (Fig. 4 and 5). ANOVA results imply no statistically significant variations between stations and years (Table 1). Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) The SOC (average of four depths) in Lothian Island and Bonnie Camp were 1.07 % and 0.86 % respectively in 2012 and 1.21% and 0.97% respectively in 2013. The SOC decreased with depth in both the stations and years (Fig. 6 and  Mangrove Biomass and Stored Carbon in relation to Soil Properties: A Case Study from Indian Sundarbans © Copyright reserved by IJPRS Impact Factor = 1.0285  61 7). ANOVA results exhibit significant variation in soil organic carbon between stations, but not  between years (Table 1). -50-40-30-20-10010200-10 cm10-20 cm20-30 cm30-40 cmDepth (cm)    p depthLothianIslandBonnieCamp  Figure 4: Depth wise variation of soil pH during 2012 -50-40-30-20-10010200-10 cm10-20 cm20-30 cm30-40 cmDepth (cm)   p   H depthLothianIslandBonnieCamp  Figure 5: Depth wise variation of soil pH during 2013 -40-35-30-25-20-15-10-5050-10 cm10-20 cm20-30 cm30-40 cmDepth (cm)    O  r  g  a  n   i  c  c  a  r   b  o  n   (   %   ) depthLothianIslandBonnieCamp  Figure 6: Depth wise variation of SOC during 2012 -40-35-30-25-20-15-10-5050-10 cm10-20 cm20-30 cm30-40 cmDepth (cm)    O  r  g  a  n   i  c  c  a  r   b  o  n   (   %   ) depthLothianIslandBonnieCamp   Figure 7: Depth wise variation of SOC during 2013 Soil Nitrate-Nitrogen The soil nitrate-nitrogen concentration exhibited a significant variation between stations. The nitrate-nitrogen concentration (average of four depths) was maximum in Lothian Island (0.262µg/gm and 0.261µg/gm respectively during 2012 and 2013 and minimum in Bonnie Camp (0.239µg/gm and 0.237µg/gm respectively during 2012 and 2013). The nitrate-nitrogen concentration decreased with depth irrespective of stations and years (Fig. 8 and 9). ANOVA results exhibit statistically significant variations between stations, but not between years (Table 1). -40-37-34-31-28-25-22-19-16-13-10-7-4-1250-10 cm10-20 cm20-30 cm30-40 cmDepth (cm)    N   i  t  r  a  t  e -  n   i  t  r  o  g  e  n   (  µ  g   /  g  m   ) depthLothianIslandBonnie Camp  Figure 8: Depth wise variation of soil nitrate-nitrogen during 2012  Mangrove Biomass and Stored Carbon in relation to Soil Properties: A Case Study from Indian Sundarbans © Copyright reserved by IJPRS Impact Factor = 1.0285  62 -40-37-34-31-28-25-22-19-16-13-10-7-4-1250-10 cm10-20 cm20-30 cm30-40 cmDepth (cm)    N   i   t  r  o  g  e  n -  n   i  r  o  g  e  n   (  µ  g   /  g  m depthLothianIslandBonnieCamp   Figure 9: Depth wise variation of soil nitrate-nitrogen during 2013  Soil Phosphate-Phosphorus The phosphate-phosphorous concentration (average of four depths) in Lothian Island and Bonnie Camp were 0.558µg/gm and 0.531µg/gm respectively in 2012 and 0.554µg/gm and 0.530µg/gm respectively in 2013. The phosphate-phosphorous decreased with depth in both the stations and years (Fig. 10 and 11). ANOVA results exhibit significant variation in soil phosphate-phosphorous  between stations, but not between years (Table 1). -40-37-34-31-28-25-22-19-16-13-10-7-4-1250-10 cm10-20 cm20-30 cm30-40 cmDepth (cm)    P   h  o  s  p   h  a   t  e  -  p   h  o  s  p   h  o  r  u  s   (  µ  g   /  g  m depthLothianIslandBonnieCamp   Figure 10: Depth wise variation of soil P-PO 4  during 2012 Soil Sulphate-Sulphur The sulphate-sulphur concentration was almost uniform in both the stations. The values (average of four depths) in Lothian Island and Bonnie Camp were 1.28 mg/gm and 1.27 mg/gm respectively in 2012 and 1.33 mg/gm and 1.30 mg/gm respectively in 2013. The sulphate-sulphur concentration decreased with depth in both the stations and years (Fig.12 and 13). ANOVA results imply no statistically significant variations between stations and years (Table 1). -40-37-34-31-28-25-22-19-16-13-10-7-4-1250-10 cm10-20 cm20-30 cm30-40 cmDepth (cm)    P   h  o  s  p   h  a   t  e  -  p   h  o  s  p   h  o  r  u  s   (  µ  g   /  g  m depthLothianIslandBonnieCamp  Figure 11: Depth wise variation of soil P-PO 4 during 2013 -40-35-30-25-20-15-10-5050-10 cm10-20 cm20-30 cm30-40 cmDepth (cm)    S  u   l  p   h  a   t  e  -  s  u   l  p   h  u  r   (  m  g   /  g  m   ) depthLothianIslandBonnieCamp  Figure 12: Depth wise variation of soil S-SO 4  during 2012 -40-35-30-25-20-15-10-5050-10 cm10-20 cm20-30 cm30-40 cmDepth (cm)    S  u   l  p   h  a   t  e -  s  u   l  p   h  u  r   (  m  g   /  g  m   ) depthLothianIslandBonnieCamp  Figure 13: Depth wise variation of soil S-SO 4 during 2013
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