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Modified CCEF for Energy-Efficiency and Extended Network Lifetime in WSNS

The widespread application of wireless sensor networks (WNSs) is obstructed by the severely limited energy constraints and security threat for sensor nodes. Since traditional routing and security schemes are not suited for these networks, a large
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  International Journal of UbiComp (IJU), Vol.6, No.4, October 2015 DOI:10.5121/iju.2015.6401 1 M ODIFIED CCEF  FOR E NERGY  - EFFICIENCY AND E XTENDED N ETWORK L IFETIME IN WSN S   Muhammad K. Shahzad 1   and Tae Ho Cho 1, 2 1 College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Republic of Korea.  A  BSTRACT    The widespread application of wireless sensor networks (WNSs) is obstructed by the severely limited energy constraints and security threat for sensor nodes. Since traditional routing and security schemes are not suited for these networks, a large part of research focusses on energy efficient routing protocols while extending the network lifetime. Uneven distribution of communication loads result in network partitioning. Traditional novel en-route filtering approaches, notably commutative cipher based en-route filtering (CCEF) saves energy by early filtering of false reports. However this approach main focus is security not network lifetime is limited by fixed paths and underlying routing not suitable for WSNs. In order to cater these problems we propose energy efficient routing and pre-deterministic key distribution with dynamic  path selection in CCEF. Modified CCEF (MCCEF) aims at saving energy and extending network lifetime while maintaining filtering power as in CCEF. Experimental results demonstrate the validity of our approach with an average of three times network lifetime extension, 5.022% energy savings, and similar  filtering power as the original scheme.  K   EYWORDS   Wireless sensor networks, energy efficiency, network lifetime, filtering power. 1.   I NTRODUCTION   In en-route filtering schemes generally underlying routing protocols are not considered for further energy efficiency. Notably, a novel commutative cipher based en-route filtering (CCEF) [1] can save up to 32% energy in case of large number of injected fabricated reports. However limitations are; network lifetime is not main concern, based on fixed paths, and while in routing only distance is considered not energy level of a node. For different fabricated ratio (FTR) the security response is constant. FTR is number of attacks divided by total number of events. Security response is number of verification nodes assigned in a path as per current FTR. In order to save more energy CCEF does not improve underlying reedy perimeter stateless routing (GPSR) [2] which was srcinally design for ad hoc networks. The work [3] have demonstrated that unbalanced communication load results in network partition or energy-hole problem which have severe effects on network lifetime. In wireless sensor networks (WSNs) several en-route filtering 2 Corresponding author  International Journal of UbiComp (IJU), Vol.6, No.4, October 2015 2 algorithms [4], [5], [6], and [7] saves energy by early filtering of attacks which do not consider energy-efficiency in routing. Several improvement of CCEF [8], DEF [9], SEF [10], and IHA [11] have been proposed address some of the limitations. In pre-deterministic key distribution based CCEF (PKCCEF) [8] which showed up to 16.05% energy efficiency and 81.01% network lifetime extension. Our proposed modified CCEF (MCCEF) not only significantly extends network lifetime up to 300% but also maintain filtering power in addition to be more energy efficiency than srcinal scheme. In research work [12], authors suggests that uneven distribution of the communication loads can results in energy-hole. In order to solve this problem they have suggested an adjustable transmission range can be assigned to optimize the network lifetime. In this paper in order to evaluate energy consumption, we will use first order radio model [13, 14]. In [15], authors have discussed different factors of RF power management in WSNs. The paper presents a micro-power spectrum analyser which enables low power operations throughout wireless integrated networks sensors (WINS). MCCEF saves energy while significantly extending the network lifetime. Moreover our proposed scheme give similar filtering power as in the srcinal scheme. Since creating path is more expansive then selecting from already created paths, MCCEF before creating a new path among a pair of nodes prefer to select from buffer if it already exists. FTR or attacks information is also obtained without causing additional messages or energy consumption at sensor nodes. Our proposed scheme aims at distributing communication loads over larger group of nodes in the sensor to get more balanced energy distribution approach. This is achieved by energy efficient routing which consider different factors in addition to distance only in CCEF and pre-deterministically re-distribute keys. Based on current FTR ratio our algorithm can choose dynamically one of the paths which cater for security needs. Performance analysis demonstrate the validity of our approach which is more energy efficient and prolongs the network lifetime significantly while maintaining the filtering power as in the srcinal approach. The main contribution of this paper are:    Energy efficient routing    Extended network lifetime while    Maintaining filtering power 2.   R ELATED W ORK   In order to address the security of the WSN, the underlying routing protocol is generally ignored. In the security design, when the number of attacks exceeds a certain threshold, it is safe to assume that early detection would conserve energy that would have been wasted otherwise. However, further energy efficiency can be achieved if energy-efficient routing is considered. CCEF [1] establishes a secret association among the nodes and the base station (  ) per session, and each node in the route possesses its own witness. The sensor nodes in the path do not need to share a symmetric key, thereby offering stronger security protection than the existing schemes.  International Journal of UbiComp (IJU), Vol.6, No.4, October 2015 3 Intermediate nodes have a witness key (   ) and can verify a report without knowing the session key (   ). Even though only a few nodes are used as the filtering nodes,    keys are distributed to all of the nodes. CCEF does only support static sink based networks and does not perform re-clustering after depletion of sensor nodes. When number of sensor nodes are less then t nodes the security as well as network lifetime suffer from adverse effect. The underlying routing for CCEF is GPSR [2] excessively use geography for greedy (distance) forwarding. This efficient geo routing method is scalable for large densely deployed networks. However, for energy constraints WSNs it suffer from number of constraint; 1) consider distance only not energy while forwarding messages 2) fix path routing and 3) low network lifetime. The study [3] investigates the uneven consumption of the energy in gradient sinking networks. This leads to the presence of energy holes resulting in a significant reduction in the sensor network lifetime. The results demonstrate that the stated strategy can reduce energy consumption and extend the network lifetime dramatically. However this study is applicable for static sink based WSNs. In order to achieve energy efficiency and prolong network lifetime recently several approaches has been proposed. One approach to save energy is to filter false reports en-route as early as possible. To address this various novel en-route filtering has been proposed. Statistical en-route filtering (SEF) [4] first addressed the false report detection problems by determining the number of compromised sensor nodes. It introduces the general en-route filtering framework, which serves as the basis of subsequent en-route filtering-based security protocols. Dynamic en-route filtering (DEF) [5] uses the hill climbing approach for key dissemination in order to filter false reports earlier, where each node requires a key chain for authentication. The interleaved hop-by-hop authentication scheme (IHA) [6] can detect false data reports when no more than   nodes are compromised. It provides an upper bound to the number of hops a false report can traverse before it is dropped in the presence of t colluding nodes. As in CCEF, IHA also based on GPSR and suffer from similar limitations. In a probabilistic voting-based filtering scheme (PVFS) [7], the number of message authentication controls (MACs; referred to as votes in the paper) is used to prevent both fabricated reports with false votes and false votes on valid report attacks. Recently several variations of above en-route filtering schemes has been propose to increase energy efficiency and/or extend network lifetime. PKCCEF [8] improves CCEF which by using energy aware routing, significantly improves network lifetime and saves energy. The fuzzy-based path selection method (FPSM) [9] improves the detection of false reports in the WSN, in which each cluster chooses paths by considering the detection power of the false data and the energy efficiency. In [10], a key index-based routing for filtering false event reports in the WSN is presented. Each node selects a path from the event source to the destination based on the key index of its neighbor nodes. However these schemes do not utilized re-clustering and assume static sink. The work in [11] addresses the limitations of IHA, which works on a single fixed path between the source and the destination. The authors propose a Multipath Interleaved Hop-by-hop Authentication (MIHA) scheme that creates multiple paths and switches to another path if there are   compromised nodes in the current path. It proves to be more energy efficient and can filter more attacks than the srcinal scheme. Research work [16], suggests that uneven distribution of the communication loads often results in energy hole. In order to solve this problem optimal and adjustable transmission ranges are assigned to optimize the network lifetime. Results demonstrate the near optimal solution to extend network lifetime both in uniform and non-uniform deployment. The paper [13] presents  International Journal of UbiComp (IJU), Vol.6, No.4, October 2015 4 several radio transmission model. In order to calculate the energy consumption and comparison in this paper we first order radio model. In [14], authors use the first order radio model for their energy efficient communication protocol for wireless sensor networks. We use the same first order radio transmission model with same values for energy transmission and reception of a bit with an acceptable      ratio. 3.   P ROPOSED S CHEME In this section, motivation, system models, and system overview is presented in detail. 3.1.   Motivation Uneven energy consumption results in energy-holes around the Base Station   ) in sink based networks. In order to solve this problem different approaches with an aim to distribute communication load over larger group of sensor networks has been adapted. The underlying routing in CCEF is GPSR which was srcinally proposed for ad hoc networks does not cater for energy limited sensor nodes requirements. In fix path routing a single path is used until it is broken by depletion of a node. MCCEF aims at dynamically selecting from different available  paths based on a node’s residual energy level, current attack ratio (FTR), and distance. Since different paths have different number of verification nodes based on number of keys in paths, our proposed scheme can respond based on FTR. MCCEF make use of these factors in design of energy efficiency approach while extending the network lifetime significantly and maintaining en-route filtering power as in CCEF. 3.2.   System models 3.2.1.Network model The sensor nodes are randomly deployed within square sensor field of area       within radius of   as shown in the Fig. 1. This sensor field comprise of   number of sensor nodes represented by: {        }  respectively. In this paper total number of sensor nodes  {} . As shown in the Fig. The location of the   is    (500, 250) m. The clusters are represented by: {        }  where   All the cluster are of equal size with       where   . In each cluster equal number of nodes are randomly distributed in each cluster. Following are the assumptions associated with network model: 1.   Network is composed of stationary homogenous nodes 2.   Communication links are symmetric 3.   Nodes can adjust transmission power as per relative distance  International Journal of UbiComp (IJU), Vol.6, No.4, October 2015 5 3.2.2.First order radio model for energy consumption The first-order radio model [13, 14] is used with a free space (   power loss) channel model is used. A typical sensor circuitry consists of a data processing unit, radio communication components, a micro sensor unit, antenna, power supply, and amplifier. In our implementation of the energy dissipation model, we only consider the energy dissipation that is associated with the radio component. A simple and commonly used first-order radio model block diagram is shown in Fig. 2. In order to transmit a  -bits packet with a distance   between the transmitter and receiver, the transmission energy,    )  can be modeled by Equation (1).    )       (1) Where    is the energy used by the electronics of the circuit, and     is the energy used by the electronics of the transmitter to transmit   bits. Moreover,    is the energy used by the amplifier, and λ is the path loss constant. Similarly,    )  is the energy needed to receive k-bits in Equation (2). Figure 1. Sensor field   Fiure 2: First order radio model
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