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Nibros 139-155 new

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  Journal of Pragmatics Research  Vol. 01, No.02, (2019), pp.139-155    Website: 139 The Flouting Maxim on Twitter Influencers’ Tweets   Nibros Hassani  IAIN Salatiga   Submission Track: Received: 19-09-2019 Available online: 30-10-2019 Corresponding Author:  Nibros Hassani ABSTRACT This study aims to discover the use of maxim principles on the tweets that made by certain of Indonesian social-media influencers which the method is conducted qualitatively. The data is taken from and Twitter App, where the researcher captured the tweets randomly and analyzed it by using maxim relevance principle as the tool of analysis. The result shows vary: most of the conversations were not obeying the maxim of relevance principles, or in other words do not imply maxim of relevance principle. Moreover, the intentions are to make jokes, and to run the conversation smoothly while doing the flouting.  Keywords : maxim of relevance, twitter, social media influencer INTRODUCTION Language plays a great role in our life (Bloomfield & Sapir, 1922). Meanwhile many linguists were using Whorf’s hypothesis about language that the way society uses a language can determine its worldview about world, Gunarwan stated : language is influenced by culture around it. For instance, Javanese must be influenced by  javanese culture. There’s term called ”empan papan” to say version of the social structure in society according to javanese people while it’s occured too in Basa Jawa or Javanese  (Gunarwan, 1999). In case of pragmatic as a  branch of linguistic, how language is used in communication is matter. Pragmatic studies what meant by the speakers when doing the interaction. In short, pragmatic is a study concerns the meaning which is effected by things outside the language. To understand what happens in a conversation for instance, we need to know how the relation and social distance work among them, or even relative status among them. Here’s one of the example :    Nibros Hassani  140 (1)   A : Setelah ini, kerjakan yang lain (After this, Do the next thing) B : Baik, Bu. (Yes, madam) (2) C : Bantuin, dong  ! (Help me, can’t you!)  D : Sabar sedikit kenapa,  sih ? (Can’t you just be patient ?) As an Indonesian speaker, we can conclude both conversations were done by different  person and social status. The first conversation (1) is uttered by A who has higher status than B, while in the second conversation (2) C and D has the same status. A good social interaction could be done when some requirements are fulfilled, one of them is politeness principle. Moreover, in a conversation a speaker must have certain means when utters something. The means in such conversation are called as implicature. According to Grice as cited by Kushartanti (2005), in the principle of cooperation, a speaker should not violate four maxims. Maxim is a principle that is must obeyed by the speakers in the interaction to make sure the conversation is done smoothly. The four maxims are : Maxim of Quantity, Maxim of Quality, Maxim of Relevance, and Maxim of Manner. A conversation done nowadays is not only uttered offline, but also online. This also includes the effect of Industrial Revolution 4.0 which demands a change on how people communicate (Cahyono & Hassani, 2019). The demands on technology use have made the interaction among people elevate to online, which has lots of advantages than the conventional one (and right back then, the disadvantages). Social media has became the most dominant medium used by people at present : Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, Instagram, and many more. Twitter, as one of the social media existing and used by many Indonesians becomes the object of this research. Twitter is an American online news and social networking service on which users can  post and interact with messages known as “tweets”. Founded by Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, and Evan Williams in 2006, Twitter has internationally recognized as popular social media in addition many great people use Twitter to interact with the users. As of 2018, Twitter had more than 321 million monthly active users. Content of tweets according to Pear Analytics mostly is Pointless babble (40.1%) and secondly is Conversational (37.6%). Twitter has feature which support its users to interact by replying, sending a direct message, and commenting on a  Journal of Pragmatics Research  Vol. 01, No.02, (2019), pp.139-155    Website: 141 tweet. Indonesia (Herman & Mononimbar, 2017) became the fifth-largest country in terms of Twitter users. Research GAP and Novelty    The prior researches haven’t discussed the conversation occured in Twitter which can lead to the cyberculture discussion. Additionally, most of pragmatics researches used conversation on YouTube, Film, Novel, as the object of analysis. Based on the prior statements, the researcher excites to do a research on Twitter conversation as object of the study. As the user of Twitter too, the researcher has further observed the conversation done by some Twitter influencers. Influencer here means, the user gained more than thousands of followers and many interactions each day above the average of normal users. Some of the influencers are public figure, and some are not. In order to answer the researcher’s curiosity, the maxim principles  particularly the maxim of relevance will be the tool of analysis. Last but not least, the researcher will explore further the discussion by giving this research a title “The Flouting Maxim on Twitter Influencers’ Tweets” due to the recent findings, and expect this research can give significances on cyberculture, social media, linguistic, and pragmatic study. Literature Review Pragmatics In how we communicate, someone tends to be communicative so the messages are delivered to other speakers succesfully. May states (Hidayati, 2017) communication requires  people to cooperate; the “bare facts” of conversation come alive only in a mutually accepted,  pragmatically determined context  . Thus, in every conversation, this discussion is related to Cooperative Principle which is stated by Grice and will be discussed further in the scope of  pragmatic studies. Pragmatics is a branch of linguistics conceived as dealing, separately from others, with the meaning that a sentence has in a particular context in which it is uttered (“Concise Oxford Dict. Linguist.,” 2014) . Pragmatics distinguishes from Semantics, which conveiyed as studying meaning independently of contexts. For instance, There’s a car coming   would have the meaning out of context of a statement that a car is coming. But on a specific occasion it might be a  Nibros Hassani  142 warning to a pedestrian not to step onto a road, or could be an expression of hope that people invited to a dinner are at last arriving, and so on. Moreover, in particular, pragmtics includes the study of implicatures as opposed to literal meanings or truth conditions of sentence. Another definition comes from Leech (Ulliyadhi & Raharja, 2019), He explains that general pragmatics is abstraction between the study of language in total abstraction from the situation, and the study of more socially specialized uses of language, that pragmatics is the study about the relation between language and context that are used in the community.  Employing Maxim Principles in The Conversation Conversation is a cooperative activity (Firdaus, Thahara, & Amelia, 2017). Thus, Grice has stated this principle, known as cooperative principle (CP) consisting 4 maxims of conversation. Here’s the detailed which Leech adapted from Grice (Leech, 2014) : 1.   Maxim of Quantity In this maxim, participants of a conversation give their contribution as is required in term of the quantity of information. In making contribution in their conversation, the participants should give their contribution as much as is necessary, and should not give more information or less information to the listener. For instance, A : Anak gadis saya sekarang sudah punya karir (My daughter has a career now) B : Anak gadis saya yang perempuan sudah punya karir (My daughter who is girl has a career now) To compare both sentences, the word ‘daughter’ already explains a girl, so the sentence B violates the maxim of Quantity, giving unnecessary contribution. 2.   Maxim of Quality Based on Maxim of Quality, a conversant must say actual things, because sometimes the conversants do not feel sure with what they informed. For instance, IAIN Salatiga building is located in Salatiga, not in Semarang or Ungaran, unless there are  people who do not know. In other words, the rules in this maxim are : (i) Say what you  believe to be false and (ii) Say that for which you lack adequate evidence.  Journal of Pragmatics Research  Vol. 01, No.02, (2019), pp.139-155    Website: 143 3.   Maxim of Relevance In this maxim, the conversant must maintain the conversation stays on the topic and relate to the context. If not, the conversation will not run smoothly and successfully  because the topic is easily to be understood. In other words, in this maxim the rule is  being relevant with the topic. For instance, when A says : What time is it? Then B should answer 9 AM, not “today is a hot day” or another irrelevant answer.  4.   Maxim of Manner In maxim of manner, the utterance that is conveyed must not be unclear. There are two kinds of clarity : clear text (syntax and phonology of the language) and clear message (the sense of illocutionary goal conveyed is understandable). Furthermore, Grice states this maxim must obey these rules : (i) Avoid obscurity of expression (ii) Avoid ambiguity. (iii) Be brief (avoid unnecessary prolixity) (iv) Be orderly. Twitter : A Medium of Conversation Before jumping further, the first topic of paragraph should be about the medium itself. Medium (a singular term : “media”) is referred to the specialised and separate institutions and organisations in which people worked: print media and the press, photography, advertising, cinema, broadcasting (radio and television), publishing, additionally is referred to the cultural and material products of those institutions (the distinct forms and genres of news, road movies, soap operas which took the material forms of newspapers, paperback books, films, tapes, discs (Lister, Dovey, Giddings, Grant, & Kelly, 2008) . While the era came into early 1990’s and the definition got broader, the term ‘new media’ appeared and change the landscape of the studies.  New media study has been discussed many times and became an evidence of the era’s shift  with all the new media characteristics : digital, interactive, hypertextual, virtual, networked, and simulated. Twitter as social networking (and American online news) has gained worldwide  popularity and with more than 321 million monthly active users as of 2018. The service’s  popularity also increased since the covering of politics in the United States and presidential
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