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Porqueddu M.E., Bailly M., Melis M.G., Margarit X., Fallavollita P. (2019) EAA - Abstract: From Surfaces to Tools: Traceology and Experimental Analyses of Digging Techniques of Mediterranean Rock-Cut Tombs

Rock-cut tombs are present, at the end of Prehistory, in Sardinia and in the south of France. A large literature is dedicated to these monuments, but the study of the digging process remains poorly discussed. This topic has been the object of a PhD
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    From Surfaces to Tools: Traceology and Experimental Analyses of Digging Techniques of Mediterranean Rock-Cut Tombs Session 271: Rock-cut architecture: communities, landscapes and economy Marie-Elise PORQUEDDU Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, Minist Culture, LAMPEA, Aix-en-Provence, France Maxence BAILLY Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, Minist Culture, LAMPEA, Aix-en-Provence, France Maria Grazia MELIS Università di Sassari, Dipartimento di Storia, Scienze dell’Uomo e della Formazione,  LaPArS Xavier MARGARIT Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, Minist Culture, LAMPEA, Aix-en-Provence, France Paolo FALLAVOLLITA Oben srl, Sassari, Italie Keywords:  Rock-cut tombs; digging techniques; carving process Abstract: Rock-cut tombs are present, at the end of Prehistory, in Sardinia and in the south of France. A large literature is dedicated to these monuments, but the study of the digging process remains poorly discussed. This topic has been the object of a PhD research and a research program developed and funded by the Galilée program from the Université franco-italienne . This program focuses mainly on the study of the surfaces in rock-cut tombs. The question of the walls ‘  surfaces from Sardinian and French hypogea is essential for the understanding of the realisation of these monuments and the action taken during the digging process. This research goes through the study of the walls, more precisely the digging traces, and the study of the macro-lithic tools used for the excavation. The study of excavation traces on the walls is complex because of the state of conservation of the monuments but also of the treatments applied on the walls. Indeed, many hypogea are characterized by the presence of a specific treatment on the walls comprising a smoothing and/or the realisation of sculpture and  engraving. Many Sardinian hypogea also have painted representations. Similarly, these artificial cavities have many problems of conservation. The walls suffer from moisture and vegetation as well as vandalism. In these circumstances, it is necessary to develop a non-invasive study technique to obtain quality data. In this prospect, we chose to set up a photography and photogrammetry method complemented by an experimental protocol. We focused on the differences of treatments that can be observed on the walls of hypogea as well as on the techniques and tools used in the excavation of these underground architectures. In this communication, we will expose the methodology adopted and the results obtained within the Galilée program.
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