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(Re)turning research into pedagogical practice: A case study of translational language research in Warlpiri

Speech corpora created primarily for linguistic research are not often easily repurposed for practical use by the communities who participated in the research. This chapter describes a process whereby methods and materials collected for language
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  Licensed under Creative CommonsAttribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International Abstract Speech corpora creaed primarily or linguisic research are no ofen easily repurposed or pracical use by he communiies who paricipaed in he research. Tis chaper describes a process whereby mehods and maerials colleced or language documenaion research have been reurned o speakers in communiies; his involves he implemenaion o proessional developmen aciviies or Warlpiri educaors in bilingual educaion programs. Documenaion o children’s speech ook place in our Warlpiri communiies in 2010. o make he research resuls available o educaors in Warlpiri communiies in an easily accessible way, he researcher produced shor videos showing analyses o he children’s speech. Tese online videos, along wih audio recordings and writen ranscrips o he children’s speech, were uilised by a eam o linguiss and educaors a proessional developmen workshops in he Norhern erriory Deparmen o Educaion. Educaors acively worked wih he maerials, discussed issues relaing o children’s oral language developmen, and idenified poenial pedagogical pracices. Trough his process he maerials were reurned o he Warlpiri communiy and uilised in an acive cycle o locally ocused proessional learning aciviies. Keywords:  Warlpiri, bilingual educaion, oral language, curriculum, children Carmel O’Shannessy Australian National University  Samanha Disbray Te University of Qeensland  Barbara Marin Yuendumu School  Greel Macdonald Yuendumu School  (Re)turning research into pedagogical practice: A case study of translational language research in Warlpiri Language Documentation & Conservation Special Publication No. 18  Archival returns: Central Australia and beyond  ed. by Linda Barwick, Jennifer Green & Petronella Vaarzon-Morel, pp. 139–151http://nflrc.hawaii.edu/ldc/sp18http://hdl.handle.net/10125/24881 7  140  Carmel O’Shannessy, Samantha Disbray, Barbara Martin, Gretel Macdonald Introduction 1 Responsible linguisic research pracice demands collaboraion beween communiies and researchers (Czaykowska-Higgins 2009: 59; Dobrin & Schwarz 2016). Collaboraion is maniesed in a wide range o ways (Ahlers 2009; Benedico e al. 2007), such as decision-making abou research; raining fieldworkers (Florey 2008); developing adul educaion programs (Litle, Wysoe, McClay & Coon 2015; Miyashia & Chasis 2013); reurning language documenaion maerials and he creaion o communiy archives (Linn 2014); and he reurn o research findings in accessible orms or he creaion o language resources. Documenaion o children’s language in endangered language conexs is imporan or undersanding language mainenance and change, as he speech o children and young people is an indicaor o ehnolinguisic vialiy. Addiionally, children may play a role in language innovaion and shif, i change is occurring. However, he relaionship beween he daa colleced, research oupus, and ways o respond pracically o communiy needs and wans migh no be immediaely clear. Tis chaper describes a process whereby mehods and maerials rom Warlpiri child language documenaion research have been reurned o speakers in communiies and become he cornersone o proessional developmen aciviies or educaors in bilingual educaion programs over several years. Te educaion aciviies were enabled hrough a collaboraion o Warlpiri and non-Warlpiri school-based educaors and curriculum suppor saff. Te chaper ses ou he conex o he research, how research findings were communi-caed o communiy members hrough he creaion o accessible audiovisual repors, and he collaboraive process o repurposing he repors and ranscrips o children’s speech or pro-essional learning cycles or Warlpiri educaors, wih a ocus on he eaching and learning o oral language. Te processes are more han a reurn o he maerials. Tey involve ineracing wih he maerials in cycles ha enrich eachers’ undersandings o language srucures, lin-guisic erminology, analysis o oral exs, idenificaion o learning needs, and developmen o eaching aciviies. Te eachers hen moved beyond ineracing wih he maerials provided, o creaing heir own recordings o children’s speech and analysing hose. In doing his, hey ransormed heir eaching pracices on heir own erms. Te repurposing o mehods and maerials was an innovaive underaking, drawing on specific speech corpora and collabora-ions o local educaors, curriculum suppor saff, and researchers. We begin by inroducing he Warlpiri communiies and heir bilingual educaion pro-grams, hen deail he language daa and is reurn in he orm o audiovisual repors, audio recordings, and ranscrips. We hen explain he process o using hese as a basis or a pro-essional learning program, and he cycles o learning ha have aken place over our years. 1 Our hanks o all Warlpiri educaors, Warlpiri communiy members, and non-Warlpiri Norhern erriory Deparmen o Educaion saff who have collaboraed in he proessional learning projec described in his chaper. Tanks also o he children, amilies, and Norhern erriory Deparmen o Educaion saff who were involved in he daa collecion ha ormed he basis or he proessional learning projec. Field research on he projec was carried ou as par o and wihin Ehical Research Approval by he Cooperaive Research Cenre or he projec ‘Cooperaive Research Cenre or Remoe Economic Paricipaion, Remoe Educaion Sysems, Warlpiri riangle sie’ 2012–2016.   (Re)turning research into pedagogical practice 141 We conclude wih a discussion o he ongoing and enduring research and pracice relaionship and collaboraion ha resuled, o he conribuion such a collaboraion can make o commu-niy and school-based language mainenance effors, and he poenial o use similar daa in oher language conexs. Background to the Warlpiri communities and Warlpiri Bilingual Education Programs Warlpiri–English bilingual programs operae in our remoe Warlpiri communiies in he Norhern erriory (N) (see Figure 1), orming he educaion- and language-relaed Warlpiri riangle region. Te populaions o he our communiies range rom approximaely 200–300 (Nyirrpi and Willowra) o 600–700 (Lajamanu and Yuendumu). Te Warlpiri ravel requenly beween communiies and are in consan communicaion wih each oher. Alhough Warlpiri is he main language spoken in he communiies, hey are mulilingual environmens. Oher radiional Ausralian languages are spoken in he communiies by relaives, riends, and visiors, and mos people speak varieies o English. Tere is some evidence o English R o  p  e  r    H  i  g  h  w  a  y  V  i  c  t   o   r  i  a   H  i  g  h  w  a    y B     u    c   h   a  n  a  n   H   i   g   h w a  y   B     u    c   h   a  n  a  n   H   i   g   h w a  y    B   u   n   t  i  n e     H  i  g   h  w a y       B   u   n   t  i  n e     H  i  g   h  w a y  B  a   r    k  l    y     H  i   g   h w a  y T    a   n    a   m   i       R   o  a  d      S   t    u   a  r  t          H     i       g         h      w        a        y Northern Territory   Northern Territory W     E      S     T     E     R     N       A                                                                                                       U                                                                                                        S                                                                                                        T                                                                                                       R                                                                                                       A                                                                                                      L                                                                                                      I                                                                                                       A                                                                                                             Q       U       E      E      N      S       L      A      N      D SOUTH AUSTRALIA Daguragu   Daguragu Top SpringsKalkaringi Tennant Creek DunmarraDaly WatersMataranka   MatarankaKatherineDarwin   Darwin Ti TreeYurntumu(Yuendumu)   Yurntumu(Yuendumu)Wirliya-jarrayi(Willowra)   Wirliya-jarrayi(Willowra)Lajamanu   LajamanuAlice SpringsNyirrpi   NyirrpiAlekarenge Tilmouth Well    Tilmouth Well Tanami Gold Mine    Tanami Gold MineGranites Gold Mine   Granites Gold MineJila Well   Jila Well Gulf of CarpentariaCoral SeaTimor Sea N 200km1000Scale Area covered by this map WANTQldNSWSAVic Tas Legend  Town/CommunityRoad – sealed – unsealed Figure 1.  Map of Warlpiri Triangle region. Created by Brenda Thornley, 2019  142  Carmel O’Shannessy, Samantha Disbray, Barbara Martin, Gretel Macdonald influence on Warlpiri (Bavin & Shopen 1985; O’Shannessy 2012), and in Lajamanu communiy, young people speak a new mixed language, Ligh Warlpiri (O’Shannessy 2006, 2008, 2013, 2016), and also learn Warlpiri. Te Warlpiri schools’ bilingual educaion programs are par o he Norhern erriory Bilingual Educaion Program ha began in he 1970s (Devlin, Disbray, & Friedman Devlin 2017), o enable Absrcinal children in remoe communiies o have “heir primary educaion in Absrcinal languages” (Deparmen o Educaion 1973: 1). Te programs in he Warlpiri schools were among he firs bilingual programs (Disbray 2014), wih he program a Yuendumu beginning in 1975 (Ross & Baarda 2017). Communiy demand or bilingual educaion led o he developmen o programs a Willowra in 1976 (Vaarzon-Morel & Waer 2017) and Lajamanu in 1981 (Nicholls 1998). Te ousaion schools esablished in he mid o lae 1980s a Waylilinypa and Nyirrpi (laer o become a communiy school) also ran Warlpiri programs. Since hen, he poliical will o suppor he program has varied, bu Warlpiri educaors and communiy members have remained commited o eaching heir language and culure in he schools, and he programs coninue.A challenge is ha in he husle and busle o everyday planning and eaching in schools, Warlpiri educaors are rarely able o ake he ime o develop heir skills in he linguisic analysis o Warlpiri, or o se up he logisics involved in assessing oral language developmen. Mos ofen, in conexs such as his one, he emphasis is on firs language and English lieracy, and mahemaics. Developmen o oracy in he children’s firs language is assumed, and rarely evaluaed careully. Opporuniies or he proessional developmen o Warlpiri eachers are ew, bu some are provided by he annual Warlpiri riangle and quarerly Jinta-jarrimi   (‘Becoming one’) workshops. Tese workshops involve personnel rom all he Warlpiri schools as well as communiy members, including elders. Tey are a key and enduring par o he program. A each workshop, educaors and communiy members share he progress o heir program, exchange eaching sraegies and resources, plan ogeher, and underake proessional learning. Te curren projec, he developmen and delivery o proessional learning on children’s oral language developmen, ook place in he conex o hese workshops. Recording for research Te language documenaion daa used in he projec was gahered by he firs auhor, a researcher and ormer eacher-linguis a a Warlpiri school in one communiy, Lajamanu. She began documening children’s language in Lajamanu in 2002 (O’Shannessy 2005, 2008, 2013). Here, alhough a new variey o Warlpiri, Ligh Warlpiri, has evolved, he children sill learn radiional Warlpiri. Having seen a dramaic change in children’s language in one Warlpiri communiy, O’Shannessy was ineresed o know how Warlpiri children in he oher communiies were speaking. Tere are ew cross-secional sudies o children’s speech in Absrcinal communiies, ye a snapsho o how children are speaking a one poin in ime can be a good reerence or he communiy, especially eachers, and or uure sudies. A similar kind o projec on a smaller scale had been underaken earlier in he Warlpiri schools as par o he bilingual educaion program, and Warlpiri eachers had ound i insrucive o read hrough ranscrips o children’s sories and ideniy learning needs. Te projec described here buil on he earlier mehod, in much greaer deail and wih more suppor or he eachers, several years laer.  In 2010, 71 children aged 5–14 years, drawn rom across he our Warlpiri communiies, were recorded elling sories based on visual simuli. Specifically, 15 children rom Lajamanu, 14 rom Willowra, 18 rom Nyirrpi, and 24 rom Yuendumu were recorded. Te aim was o enable a horough picure o he children’s language skills a ha poin in ime. In he sudy, children and aduls individually old a series o shor narraives based on wordless picure books ha had been creaed specifically or he documenaion o morphosynacic srucures in varieies o Warlpiri (O’Shannessy 2004). In paricular, he sories aimed o elici over subjecs o ransiive verbs during he elling o he sories, because one ocus o he sudy was o undersand how children made use o ergaive case-marking (suffixes on over subjecs o ransiive verbs) and word order in heir speech. Te quesion arose because o conac wih English, which uses only word order o indicae grammaical relaions, where Warlpiri uses ergaive-absoluive case-marking. Recordings o sponaneous ineracions would probably no have yielded enough okens o over ransiive (Re)turning research into pedagogical practice 143 Figure 2.  Samples of The Monster Story picture stimuli used in data collection (O’Shannessy 2004)
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