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SOCIOPOLITICAL DYNAMICS AND CULTURAL CONTINUITY IN THE PERUVIAN NORTHERN HIGHLANDS: A CASE STUDY FROM MIDDLE HORIZON CAJAMARCA

This chapter presents excavation data from two archaeological sites, El Palacio and Paredones, located in the Department of Cajamarca in the northern sierra of Peru, a geographic area of social dynamism during the Middle Horizon. The presence of the
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  BOLEÍN DE ARQUEOLOGÍA PUCP / N.° 16 / 2012, 105-130 / ISSN 1029-2004 a   Departamento de Antropología y Filosofía, Universidad de Nanzan. Dirección postal: 18 Yamazato-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8673, Japón. Correo electrónico: shinya@nanzan-u.ac.jp o tantarica@hotmail.com SOCIOPOLIICAL DYNAMICS AND CULURAL CONINUIY IN HE PERUVIAN NORHERN HIGHLANDS: A CASE SUDY FROM MIDDLE HORIZON CAJAMARCA  Shinya Watanabe a   Abstract  Tis chapter presents excavation data from two archaeological sites, El Palacio and Paredones, located in the Department of Cajamarca in the northern sierra of Peru, a geographic area of social dynamism during the Middle Horizon. Te presence of the large-scale site of El Palacio — a Wari administrative center — would suggest that the valley came under direct Wari imperial control in a manner similar to that known under the Inca during the Late Horizon. Yet at the same time, there are chullpas at the contemporary site of Paredones that are associated with ceramics related to the iwanaku style.Tis complex situation during the Middle Horizon, on the one hand, presupposes the existence of multiple cultural groups living in the Cajamarca region. On the other hand, the Cajamarca culture has local roots that are demonstrated in the production of its kaolin ceramics that are found throughout a wide area of the Wari realm. For these reasons, the cultural changes during the Middle Horizon do not necessarily correspond to political domination. One explanation for this variable situation could be that the Cajamarca society was not centralized, and therefore had the social flexibility to coexist within an imperial society.Keywords: Wari Empire, Cajamarca, administrative center, chullpa, non-hierarchical society. Resumen DINÁMICAS SOCIOPOLÍTICAS Y CONTINUIDAD CULTURAL EN LA SIERRA NORTE PERUANA: UN CASO DE ESTUDIO DEL HORIZONTE MEDIO CAJAMARCA En este ensayo se presentan los datos de excavación de dos sitios arqueológicos, El Palacio y Paredones, ubicados en el departa-mento de Cajamarca, sierra norte del Perú, área geográfica desde donde sugiero la dinámica social durante el Horizonte Medio. La presencia del sitio El Palacio, centro administrativo Wari de gran escala en el valle de Cajamarca, es un ejemplo de similitud  fenomenológica con el caso Inca en el Horizonte ardío, debido a que el valle de Cajamarca estuvo bajo el dominio directo del Imperio wari. Al mismo tiempo, de Paredones, otro sitio contemporáneo, aparecen chullpas asociadas a cerámicas relacionadas con la cultura iwanaku.Esta situación compleja durante el Horizonte Medio presupone la existencia de múltiples grupos con diferentes culturas en la región Cajamarca. Por otro lado, la cultura Cajamarca es una expresión de continuidad que se refleja en la producción de su cerámica en caolín que se distribuyó en un área amplia de dominio Wari. Por lo que, los cambios culturales no corresponderían necesariamente a un dominio político. Una explicación a esta variable condición sería que la sociedad Cajamarca no era cen-tralizada, por lo tanto tenía flexibilidad social y pudo coexistir con la sociedad imperial. Palabras clave: Imperio wari, Cajamarca, centro administrativo, chullpa, sociedad no jerárquica.  SHINYA WATANABE  ISSN 1029-2004 106 1. Introduction Tis article considers Middle Horizon sociopolitical dynamics and cultural continuity from the pers-pective of the Cajamarca region, northern highlands of Peru. o address these issues, new excavation data obtained from El Palacio, a large administrative center of the Wari Empire, will be presented for the purpose of evaluating the relationships between Wari and the local Cajamarca culture in the region (Figure 1).Te Cajamarca culture developed after the Layzón Phase (250-50 BC) corresponding to the first part of the Early Intermediate Period, or the final part of the Formative Period in the Cajamarca basin (erada and Onuki [eds.] 1985). Tis culture is defined by the production of kaolin ceramics and continued for more than 1500 years until the time of the Spanish invasion. For this article, I use the chronology of the Cajamarca culture that is composed of 5 phases (erada and Matsumoto 1985; Wa-tanabe 2009): Initial Cajamarca Phase (50 BC-AD 200), Early Cajamarca Phase (AD 200-600), Middle Cajamarca Phase (AD 600-900), Late Cajamarca Phase (AD 900-1200), and Final Cajamarca Phase (AD 1200-1532). In the Final Cajamarca Phase, Cajamarca was incorporated within the Inca Empire, as suggested by a tampu , an administrative center, in the center of the Cajamarca region. In the Middle Cajamarca Phase, the first Wari evidence appeared at El Palacio and it continued until the first part of the Late Cajamarca Phase. 2. Wari Political Organization A  fter carrying out investigations of the sociopolitical dynamics of the Late Horizon in Cajamarca (Watanabe 2003, 2010), I initiated archaeological research that focused on the Middle Horizon. Tis work began in 2006 and produced a significant quantity of new data pertaining to the Middle Horizon occupation of the region. In the light of this new corpus of information, I propose to interpret the sociopolitical dynamics of the Middle Horizon by using the socioeconomic organization of Inca Empire as a model. Terefore, before discussing the Middle Horizon, I present a brief overview of the organization of the Inca occupation in Cajamarca.Cajamarca is best known as the location where Atahualpa, the last Inca emperor, was captured by the Spaniards. According to the chronicles, Cajamarca was under the direct control of the Inca Empire. Tis description needs to be evaluated with archaeological evidence of the Cajamarca basin.It is well known that a tampu  existed under the modern city of Cajamarca. However, since it was largely destroyed in the early colonial period (Cieza de León 1996[1553]), only the famous ‘ransom room’ (Cuarto del Rescate) can be observed today (Ravines 1985). In addition, there are many traces of the Inca road ( Capac ñan ) to the north of the modern city of Cajamarca. Otherwise, the evidence of the Inca presence is rarely recognized in ceramic or architectural styles (cf. opic, J. R. and . L. opic 1993). While more than 200 archaeological sites have been registered in the Cajamarca basin, Inca style ceramics were collected at only a few sites and Inca style architecture was not found except for the ‘Cuarto del Rescate’.Of the 115 sites recorded by Daniel G. Julien, 48 sites correspond to the Final Cajamarca Phase. However, classic Inca style ceramics were recognized at only three sites (Julien 1988:115, 168). Based on this result, Julien (1993: 252) stated that «It is quite possible that, aside from the establishment of a new capital, the effect of the Inka conquest on local settlement patterns was minimal».From 2001 to 2003 Yuji Seki and his team carried out an intensive surface reconnaissance in the Cajamarca basin, and registered 247 archaeological sites (Seki et al. 2001; Seki and Ugaz 2002; Seki and ejada 2003). Pottery pertaining to the Final Cajamarca Phase was collected at 48 sites, but Inca style ceramics were recognized at only four sites.Our 2001 excavations at Santa Delia, one of the large sites of the Final Cajamarca Phase, successfully established an absolute chronology of the site and demonstrated that it was abandoned during the time of the Inca Empire (Watanabe, in press). If we can confirm the same pattern of abandonment of Late  SOCIOPOLITICAL DYNAMICS AND CULTURAL CONTINUITY... ISSN 1029-2004 107 Intermediate Period sites, it would indicate a shift of settlement pattern under Inca dominion, as was the case in other areas (cf. D’Altroy 1992).However we do not have any clear data to separate the period before the Inca and the period during Inca domination within the Final Cajamarca Phase because the Amoshulca Complex ceramics of that phase did not change during the Late Horizon (cf. Nesbitt 2003). Te composition of the Cajamarca Black-on-Orange type ceramics and the Amoshulca Complex could be temporally diagnostic of the Late Horizon, but this interpretation remains to be confirmed. Terefore we have to rely on radio-carbon dating to evaluate if a shift occurred in settlement pattern during the Inca Period. Also it is worth noting that at Santa Delia we found many carbonized maize grains. With this evidence, it seems possible to assume that maize was cultivated intensively prior to the arrival of the Inca. We could not recognize other kinds of evidence of Inca occupation such as storage structures as is present in other Inca provinces in the north highlands (cf. opic and Chiswell 1992).Te Cajamarca case contrasts strikingly with other regions such as the Peruvian central coast, where strong evidence of Inca cultural influence was confirmed. Tese data indicate the diversity of the repre-sentation of Inca material culture, suggesting that the relationships between the Inca Empire and local societies varied between regions (cf. Menzel 1959; Malpass [ed.] 1993; Burger, Morris and Matos Men-dieta [eds.] 2007; Malpass and Alconini [eds.] 2010). However it does not mean that the Inca Empire adopted several strategies of control in each region, nor does it imply that Cajamarca was politically independent or maintained autonomy during the Late Horizon Period. Te varied representation of Inca material culture would correspond to the sociopolitical diversity of the local societies that were incorporated into the Inca Empire.Te Inca controlled labor forces in all regions of its territory (Murra 1980[1955]). One of the ma-terial indicators for the control of labor force is a tampu , an administrative apparatus. It is an archaeo-logical complex where the Incas performed ritual activities, organized labor and stored local products (cf. Ramírez 2005). Although Inca material culture is rarely recognized in Cajamarca, the existence of a tampu  allows us to infer that the Incas directly controlled the Cajamarca region. Tis observation can be referred to as a starting point for my discussion on Wari political organization.It has been widely accepted that the Middle Horizon is the period when the Wari Empire developed and expanded over much the central Andes (Menzel 1964; Lumbreras 1974; Isbell 1991, 1997a, 2001a; Isbell and McEwan [eds.] 1991; Schreiber 1992, 2001, 2005; cf. Jennings 2006a, 2006b). But it has not been clear if the northern sierra of Peru was under the direct control of Wari Empire (cf. opic, . L. and  J. R. opic 1984, 2010; opic, J. R. and . L. opic 1985, 2001; opic, . L. 1991; Lau 2005; opic, J. R. 1991). For example, John and Teresa opic stress that Viracochapampa, a Middle Horizon center located in Huamachuco, was abandoned around AD 700 before the completion of its construction (opic, J. R. 1991; opic, J. R. and . L. opic 2001: 206). However, as discussed later, the construction of El Palacio, which is clearly a Wari administrative center in the Cajamarca valley, was constructed after  AD 700. Tis indicates that the abandonment of Viracochapampa does not necessarily indicate that  Wari retreated from the Peruvian northern highlands (cf. Schreiber 2001: 88). 3. Wari evidence in Cajamarca  In the Cajamarca basin, the evidence of Wari material culture is sporadic as is the case of the Inca pe-riod. For example, during his survey of the region, Julien did not find any Wari ceramics (Julien 1988: 240). Similarly only one fragment of Wari style pottery was found on the surface of the El Palacio site near the Chonta River during the intensive survey conducted by Seki (Seki et al. 2001). Some Wari ceramic fragments were recognized in the excavations at Kolguitín near El Palacio (erada and Mat-sumoto 1985), and at Chondorko, a site located on the other side of the Chonta River (Reichlen and Reichlen 1949). Terefore, it seems reasonable to assume that all evidence of Wari material culture in the Cajamarca region is limited to El Palacio and its neighborhoods.Conversely, Cajamarca style ceramics are found in Wari related sites such as Huari, Conchopata, and  Jargampata and they correspond to the Cajamarca Floral Cursive type of Middle Cajamarca Phase B  SHINYA WATANABE  ISSN 1029-2004 108 and C (around AD 700-900). Tus, I assumed that the Wari-Cajamarca interaction had started during the final part of the Middle Cajamarca Phase A around AD 700. Some fragments of Cajamarca Classic Cursive type of the Middle Cajamarca Phase A were found in the Huamachuco area (Tatcher 1975) and would correspond to the period when Viracochapampa was under construction.In the Cajamarca region, large ceremonial centers appeared in the Middle Cajamarca Phase A, in-cluding Coyor and Complejo urístico Baños del Inca, all of which date prior to the Wari arrival. Tese ceremonial centers were abandoned at the end of the Middle Cajamarca Phase A, in accordance with the first appearance of Wari materials in the Cajamarca region (Watanabe 2009). Tree radiocarbon dates for the final moment of the Middle Cajamarca Phase A were obtained from our research and cluster around AD 700, which corresponds to the abandonment of the Complejo urístico Baños del Inca (Watanabe 2009). Tese data seem to suggest that the abandonment of the local ceremonial centers and the transition from the Middle Cajamarca Phase A to B were triggered by contact with Wari. Te change of settlement pattern could have occurred under the Wari dominion, as was the case of the Inca period. It seems reasonable to think that a change of ritual practice occurred during the Middle Hori-zon, which might imply that the manipulation of ideology was one of the Wari strategies to dominate local people. It is known from other regions that offerings with Wari style ceramics were placed at ruins from previous periods such as Cerro Amaru in Huamachuco (opic, J. R. and . L. opic 1992), and Chimu Capac in Supe (Menzel 1977).Te most important evidence of Wari presence is the existence of a large Wari administrative center called El Palacio. In the following section I will discuss the reason why El Palacio can be considered as an administrative center through the examination of our new excavation data. Another possible Middle Horizon site is Yamobamba located near the Namora village (Hyslop 1984: 61; Williams and Pineda 1985; Wiener 1993[1880]), but its cultural affiliation and chronological position of architecture remain to be evaluated. Although the Santa Delia site was mentioned as a Wari site (Jennings and Craig 2001: 484), our excavations in 2001 revealed that it pertains to the Final Cajamarca Phase (Seki et al.  2001;  Watanabe 2004, in press).It seems reasonable to hypothesize that if a Wari administrative center exists, the people who lived around it were under the direct control of the Wari Empire. Te case of Cajamarca fits this model.  Although the autonomous development of the Cajamarca culture stopped, its cultural identity was maintained within the interaction sphere under Wari dominion. Te local Cajamarca culture continued from the Initial Cajamarca Phase to the Final Cajamarca Phase without great change. 4. Excavations at El Palacio El Palacio is considered by many scholars to be a Wari site in the Cajamarca region (Lumbreras 1974; Isbell 1988: 186, 2001b, 2001c; Ravines 1985; Schreiber 1992; opic, . L. 1991: 236). Found at an altitude of 2750 meters above sea level, El Palacio is located to the northeast of the modern town of Cajamarca in the village of Miraflores, near the Chonta River (Figure 1). El Palacio is readily identified by the remains of a rectangular building, measuring approximately 60 meters by 45 meters in extension, that is visible on the surface. However, this building represents  just a small part of a much larger archaeological complex (Watanabe 2011). We carried out the first excavations at El Palacio in 2008, and additional excavations were conducted in 2010 and 2012 (Figure 2; Watanabe and Luján Dávila 2011; Watanabe and Rivas 2013). In this article just the 2008 and 2010 data will be presented since analysis of the materials of the 2012 excavations is still in process. We opened an area of 230 square meters in Sector B during 2010 (Figure 2) and our excavations revealed a complex architectural sequence (Figure 3). We detailed five architectural phases that corres-ponded to Middle Cajamarca Phase B and C, and to the first part of the Late Cajamarca Phase (Figure 4). In terms of calendar years, the area was in use from approximately AD 800 to AD 1000, a longer duration than was expected.Te majority of the complex of the Sector B was constructed during the site’s first three architec-tural phases in the Middle Cajamarca B (Figure 4A). Te architectural plan shows wide walls (60-140 108  SOCIOPOLITICAL DYNAMICS AND CULTURAL CONTINUITY... ISSN 1029-2004 109 Figure 1. Map of the northern part of Peru showing location of sites mentioned in text (Map: Shinya Watanabe).Figure 2. Plan of El Palacio (Map: Shinya Watanabe).
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