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Test bank for psychology 12th edition by myers ibsn 9781319050627

Test Bank for Psychology 12th Edition by Myers IBSN 9781319050627 Download at: People also search: psychology 12th edition myers pdf psychology 11th edition myers pdf psychology myers 11th edition psychology david myers 11th edition pdf free myers psychology social psychology myers 12th edition pdf psychology 11th edition myers ebook amazon myers psychology 10th edition
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  • 1. TEST BANK for Psychology 12th Edition by Myers IBSN 9781319050627 Download at: myers-ibsn-9781319050627/ 1. The idea that various brain regions have particular functions is known as A) phrenology. B) neural communication. C) localization of function. D) plasticity. 2. An axon transmits messages the cell body and a dendrite transmits messages the cell body. A) away from; toward B) away from; away from C) toward; away from D) toward; toward 3. To excite or inhibit an action potential in a receiving neuron, a neurotransmitter must cross the A) axon. B) synaptic gap. C) myelin sheath. D) endocrine glands. 4. The release of to muscle cell receptors triggers muscle contractions. A) ACh B) serotonin C) dopamine D) adrenaline 5. Depressed mood states are linked to levels of serotonin and of norepinephrine. A) low; low B) high; high C) low; high D) high; low levels
  • 2. 6. A drug molecule that increases the release of a neurotransmitter into the synaptic gap is a(n) A) glutamate. B) steroid. C) agonist. D) opiate.
  • 3. 7. The peripheral nervous system consists of A) interneurons. B) the spinal cord. C) endocrine glands. D) sensory and motor neurons. 8. carry messages from the body's tissues and sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord for processing. A) Sensory neurons B) Motor neurons C) Interneurons D) ANS 9. The autonomic nervous system most directly controls A) speech production. B) thinking and memory. C) movement of the arms and legs. D) bladder contractions. 10. The two nervous systems that work together to keep us in a state of homeostasis are the nervous systems. A) sympathetic and parasympathetic B) sympathetic and somatic C) parasympathetic and autonomic D) somatic and autonomic 11. When the nervous system is active, the pupils contract, heartbeat slows, digestion is stimulated, and the bladder contracts. A) autonomic B) sympathetic C) somatic D) parasympathetic 12. Although Ron has no genital sensations, he is capable of an erection if his genitals are stimulated. Ron's experience is most indicative of a(n) A) morphine antagonist. B) severed spinal cord. C) synaptic gap. D) all-or-none response.
  • 4. 13. The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine blood sugar levels. A) raises; raises B) lowers; lowers C) raises; lowers D) lowers; raises blood pressure and 14. To monitor the electrical activity in the brain that is triggered by hearing one's own name, researchers would make use of a(n) A) MRI. B) PET scan. C) EEG. D) brain lesion. 15. Your life would be most immediately threatened if you suffered destruction of the A) amygdala. B) hippocampus. C) cerebellum. D) medulla. 16. Stimulation of the reticular formation will cause a A) sleeping cat to awaken. B) hungry cat to stop eating. C) violent cat to become passive. D) thirsty cat to drink. 17. When people were shown happy and angry faces, their was found to activate in response to the angry faces. A) thalamus B) hypothalamus C) basal ganglia D) amygdala 18. Which neural center in the limbic system plays an important role in emotions such as fear and rage? A) amygdala B) thalamus C) nucleus accumbens D) hypothalamus
  • 5. 19. Research has suggested that a reward deficiency syndrome may contribute to A) insomnia. B) substance use disorders. C) schizophrenia. D) Parkinson's disease. 20. Which lobe is located behind your forehead? A) frontal B) parietal C) occipital D) temporal 21. Which lobe is located at the back of your head? A) frontal B) parietal C) occipital D) temporal 22. Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in controlling the facial muscle movements necessary for speaking? A) occipital B) frontal C) temporal D) parietal 23. The visual cortex is located in the A) occipital lobes. B) parietal lobes. C) temporal lobes. D) association areas. 24. Following massive damage to his frontal lobes, Phineas Gage was most strikingly debilitated by A) muscle spasms. B) memory loss. C) auditory hallucinations. D) irritability.
  • 6. 25. Brain scans indicate that well-practiced pianists have a larger-than-usual auditory cortex area that encodes piano sounds. This best illustrates the impact of A) neurogenesis. B) lateralization. C) brain fissures. D) plasticity. 26. Research with split-brain patients suggests that the typically constructs the theories people offer to explain their own behaviors. A) corpus callosum B) left cerebral hemisphere C) somatosensory cortex D) right cerebral hemisphere
  • 7. Answer Key 1. C 2. A 3. B 4. A 5. A 6. C 7. D 8. A 9. D 10. A 11. D 12. B 13. A 14. C 15. D 16. A 17. D 18. A 19. B 20. A 21. C 22. B 23. A 24. D 25. D 26. B
  • 8. Page 1 1. The basic building blocks of our neural information system are neurons. Explain what neurons are, how they work, and how they communicate or transmit information? 2. After Lola began using a street drug to enhance her moods, she discovered that she needed larger and larger doses of the drug in order to feel the drug's effect. Use your understanding of the neurotransmission process to explain Lola's experience. 3. Stacey is a single mother of three. Last night she was awoken to loud noises of someone trying to break into her house. Stacey jumped out of bed, woke her children, grabbed her cell phone, and hid in a bedroom closet. Once in the closet she called 911 as quietly as possible. Stacey and her children remained in the closet until the police came. Explain how her sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems responded during this time. 4. The ancient Greek physician Hippocrates believed that four basic body fluids (blood, black bile, yellow bile, and phlegm) influenced human behavior, emotions, and personality. Use your understanding of the body's rapid and slower chemical communication systems to support or refute the general logic of Hippocrates' theory. 5. Compare and contrast the various ways that neuroscientists study the brain. 6. Describe specific functions of our older brain structures, which reveal that our brains are responsible for much more than simply our capacity to think. 7. Describe how damage to specific structures in your limbic system would likely affect your experience of (a) emotions such as anxiety and elation, (b) motives such as hunger and the sex drive, and (c) memories such as recall of familiar faces or locations. 8. After suffering a head injury in an auto accident, Alyssa says that she remembers what her mother looks like, and she can accurately recall many of her mother's distinctive facial features. However, when she is shown pictures of her mother, Alyssa is unable to recognize who it is, even though she can see clearly. Use your understanding of the functioning brain to account for Alyssa's strange pattern of experience. 9. Jason and Brandon are studying together for their psychology class. Jason says, “Can you imagine how smart humans would be if they actually used all of their brain? Right now we use only 10 percent of our brain!” Put yourself in Brandon's shoes. How would you respond to Jason?
  • 9. Page 2 10. Describe how an understanding of both a normally functioning brain and a split brain enables us to better appreciate the fact that most information processing takes place outside of conscious awareness.
  • 10. Page 3 Answer Key 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
  • 11. Page 1 1. The ancient Greek physician Hippocrates correctly located the mind in the A) brain. B) heart. C) stomach. D) thyroid gland. 2. Who proposed that phrenology could reveal mental abilities and character traits? A) Franz Gall B) Plato C) Aristotle D) Daniel Kish 3. Phrenology highlighted the presumed functions of A) specific brain regions. B) synaptic gaps. C) endorphins. D) the myelin sheath. 4. The person most likely to suggest that the shape of a person's skull indicates the extent to which that individual is argumentative and aggressive would be a A) neurologist. B) behavior geneticist. C) psychoanalyst. D) phrenologist. 5. Although phrenology incorrectly suggested that bumps on the skull revealed a person's character traits, phrenology did succeed in focusing attention on A) synaptic gaps. B) action potentials. C) the localization of function. D) endorphins. 6. A focus on the links between brain activity and behavior is most characteristic of psychologists. A) psychodynamic B) cognitive C) behavioral D) biological
  • 12. Page 2 7. Dr. Wolski conducts research on the relationship between neurotransmitter deficiencies and mood states. Dr. Wolski's research focus is most characteristic of A) phrenology. B) biological psychology. C) psychoanalysis. D) social psychology. 8. A biological psychologist would be most interested in conducting research on the relationship between A) neurotransmitters and depression. B) skull shape and bone density. C) self-esteem and popularity. D) genetics and eye color. 9. To fully appreciate the interaction of neural activity, mental processes, and the functioning of human communities, it is most necessary to recognize that people are A) consciously aware. B) morally accountable. C) biopsychosocial systems. D) products of multiple neural networks. 10. The capacity of a brain area to develop new neural pathways as it adjusts to damage is known as A) phrenology. B) dendrites. C) an action potential. D) plasticity. 11. Although James lost some manual dexterity following brain damage from a small stroke, the development of new neural pathways enabled him to regain most of his lost manual agility. This best illustrates the value of A) action potentials. B) phrenology. C) plasticity. D) depolarization.
  • 13. Page 3 12. Plasticity refers to the brain's capacity to change by forming new neural pathways based on A) refractory periods. B) localization of function. C) experience. D) reuptake. 13. Many years of intensive guitar practice have led to changes in Karyasa's motor cortex that enable her skilled finger movements. This best illustrates the value of A) reuptake. B) echolocation. C) plasticity. D) localization of function. 14. Blind echolocation experts who can use the brain's visual centers to process auditory signals best illustrate the value of A) plasticity. B) reuptake. C) endorphins. D) refractory periods. 15. Neurons are best described as A) positively charged sodium and potassium ions. B) chemical molecules that cross the synaptic gap. C) nerve cells that function as the building blocks of the nervous system. D) bundled axon cables that connect the CNS with muscles, glands, and sense organs. 16. The part of the neuron that contains the nucleus is called the A) cell body. B) dendrite. C) axon. D) myelin sheath. 17. Dendrites are branching extensions of A) neurotransmitters. B) endorphins. C) neurons. D) glial cells.
  • 14. Page 4 18. The function of dendrites is to A) receive incoming signals from other neurons. B) release neurotransmitters into the spatial junctions between neurons. C) coordinate the activation of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. D) control pain through the release of opiate-like chemicals into the brain. 19. An axon is A) a cell that serves as the basic building block of the nervous system. B) a layer of fatty tissue that encases the fibers of many neurons. C) a molecule that blocks neurotransmitter receptor sites. D) the extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body. 20. Dendrite is to as axon is to . A) sensory neuron; motor neuron B) sodium ion; potassium ion C) signal reception; signal transmission D) central nervous system; peripheral nervous system 21. The longest part of a motor neuron is likely to be the A) dendrite. B) axon. C) cell body. D) synapse. 22. In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal travels from the of a single neuron. A) dendrites to the axon to the cell body B) axon to the cell body to the dendrites C) dendrites to the cell body to the axon D) axon to the dendrites to the cell body 23. A myelin sheath is a A) nerve network within the spinal cord that controls physical arousal. B) large band of neural fibers connecting the two adrenal glands. C) layer of fatty tissue encasing the axons of some nerve cells. D) bushy extension of a neuron that conducts impulses toward the cell body.
  • 15. Page 5 24. The speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased when the axon is encased by a(n) A) endorphin. B) myelin sheath. C) glial cell. D) synaptic vesicle. 25. Degeneration of the myelin sheath results in A) reuptake. B) multiple sclerosis. C) schizophrenia. D) an action potential. 26. Gerald has experienced increasing difficulties with muscle weakness, motor coordination, and body balance, which his doctor has diagnosed as multiple sclerosis. These symptoms are most likely to be directly linked with the degeneration of A) endorphins B) synaptic gaps. C) the pituitary gland. D) the myelin sheath. 27. Neurons are surrounded by , which guide neural connections and mop up ions and neurotransmitters. A) endorphins B) glial cells C) hormones D) agonists 28. One function of glial cells is to A) increase the speed of neural impulses. B) mimic the effects of neurotransmitters. C) provide nutrients to neurons. D) stimulate the production of hormones. 29. Which brain cells play a role in learning, thinking, and memory by communicating with neurons? A) endorphins B) glial cells C) agonists D) myelin cells
  • 16. Page 6 30. A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron is called the A) synapse. B) agonist. C) action potential. D) refractory period. 31. Mathematical computations by a computer are faster than your quickest mathematical computations because the top speed of a neural impulse is about times slower than the speed of electricity through the wired circuitry in a computer. A) 3 hundred B) 3 thousand C) 3 hundred thousand D) 3 million 32. An action potential is generated by the movement of through an axon membrane. A) glial cells B) glands C) neurotransmitters D) ions 33. A state in which the fluid outside an axon has a mostly positive charge and the fluid inside the axon has a mostly negative charge is called A) the action potential. B) the resting potential. C) the refractory period. D) depolarization. 34. A resting axon's fluid interior has a mostly negative charge thanks to the presence of large ions. A) sodium B) serotonin C) protein D) dopamine
  • 17. Page 7 35. Neurons generate electricity from a chemical process involving the exchange of A) ions. B) enzymes. C) cortisol. D) oxytocin. 36. The resting potential of an axon results from the fact that an axon membrane is A) encased by a myelin sheath. B) selectively permeable. C) sensitive to neurotransmitter molecules. D) part of a larger neural network. 37. The depolarization of a neural membrane creates a(n) A) action potential. B) myelin sheath. C) neural network. D) interneuron. 38. An action potential involves the temporary A) inflow of positively charged ions B) inflow of negatively charged ions C) outflow of positively charged ions D) outflow of negatively charged ions through an axon membrane. 39. As positively charged sodium ions enter the axon, flow(s) out to repolarize part of the axon. A) the action potential B) potassium ions C) a neural impulse D) glial cells 40. Following depolarization, the sodium/potassium pump transports ions a neuron. A) positively charged; into B) negatively charged; into C) positively charged; out of D) negatively charged; out of
  • 18. Page 8 41. The minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse is called the A) reflex. B) threshold. C) synapse. D) action potential. 42. Excitatory signals to a neuron must exceed inhibitory signals by a minimum intensity in order to trigger A) reuptake. B) a refractory period. C) an action potential. D) selective permeability. 43. The occurs at an electrical charge of about –55 millivolts and the occurs at a charge of about +40 millivolts. A) action potential; resting potential B) resting potential; threshold C) threshold; resting potential D) resting potential; action potential 44. With regard to the process of neural transmission, a refractory period refers to a time interval in which A) chemical messengers cross synaptic gaps between neurons. B) a neurotransmitter is reabsorbed by a sending neuron. C) an action potential cannot occur. D) an organism reflexively withdraws from a pain stimulus. 45. Increasing excitatory signals above the threshold for neural activation will not affect the intensity of an action potential. This indicates that a neuron's reaction is A) inhibited by the myelin sheath. B) delayed by a refractory period. C) an all-or-none response. D) dependent on neurotransmitter molecules. 46. A neuron's reaction of either firing at full strength or not firing at all is described as A) an all-or-none response. B) a refractory period. C) the resting potential. D) a reflexive response.
  • 19. Page 9 47. A slap on the back is more painful than a pat on the back because a slap triggers A) the release of endorphins. B) more intense neural impulses. C) the release of GABA. D) more neurons to fire, and to fire more often. 48. Sir Charles Sherrington observed that impulses took an unexpectedly long time to travel a neural pathway. His observation provided evidence for the existence of A) antagonists. B) synaptic gaps. C) interneurons. D) neural networks. 49. A synapse is a(n) A) chemical messenger that triggers muscle contractions. B) automatic response to sensory input. C) junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron. D) neural cable containing many axons. 50. The axon of a sending neuron is separated from the dendrite of a receiving neuron by a A) myelin sheath. B) neural network. C) glial cell. D) synaptic gap. 51. When an action potential reaches the end of an axon, an electrical impulse is then converted into a A) myelin sheath. B) reflexive response. C) chemical message. D) glial cell. 52. Neuron-produced chemicals that carry messages to other neurons or to muscles and glands are called A) synapses. B) interneurons. C) dendrites. D) neurotransmitters.
  • 20. 53. The chemical messengers released into the spatial junctions between neurons are called A) hormones. B) neurotransmitters. C) synapses. D) genes. 54. Neurotransmitters are released from knob-like terminals at the end of the A) dendrites. B) cell body. C) axon. D) myelin sheath. 55. Reuptake refers to the A) movement of neurotransmitter molecules across a synaptic gap. B) release of hormones into the bloodstream. C) inflow of positively charged ions through an axon membrane. D) reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by a sending neuron. 56. The number of neurotransmitter molecules located within a specific synaptic gap would most clearly be reduced by A) an action potential. B) ACh-producing neurons. C) acupuncture. D) reuptake. 57. SSRIs relieve depression by partially blocking the reuptake of A) acetylcholine. B) serotonin. C) dopamine. D) glutamate. 58. Which neurotransmitter plays the most direct role in learning and memory? A) dopamine B) acetylcholine C) GABA D) oxytocin
  • 21. 59. Opiate drugs mood and pain. A) depress; increase B) elevate; decrease C) depress; decrease D) elevate; increase 60. Which of the following is an opiate that elevates mood and eases pain? A) melatonin B) acetylcholine C) morphine D) glutamate 61. Mr. Averro's symptoms of confusion and memory loss have led his physicians to conclude that he suffers from Alzheimer's disease. His symptoms are most likely to be linked with a deterioration of brain cells that produce the neurotransmitter A) dopamine. B) acetylcholine. C) epinephrine. D) endorphin. 62.
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