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Turkey-European Union Relations on Energy/Energy Security in 2000s

In this article I would like to examine energy case as a positive agenda between Turkey and European Union. To analyse the energy case well both qualitative and quantitative methods will be used in this research. I would like to use qualitative
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   1 Turkey-European Union Relations on Energy in 2000s Dilan Elif Aksu Objectives :    To examine the historical background of TR-EU Relations on Energy    To analyse Turkey and European Union’s  current problems and disadvantages on energy issue    To show Turkey’s importance for European Union on energy to promote enhanced cooperation between EU and Turkey. Research Questions:    How did the European Union and Turkey relations on energy issue evolve throughout Turkey’s accession process?    What are the main obstacles and disadvantages of Turkey on energy/energy security?    How can the current obstacles and disadvantages of Turkey on energy be resolved to  promote further cooperation with European Union? Hypothesis: Energy case on the accession process of Turkey to European Union is crucial for both sides to improve relations through being aware of the obstacles, gaining better understanding and identifying common interest on the region for further cooperation.   2 Turkey-European Union Relations on Energy in 2000s In this article I would like to examine energy case as a positive agenda between Turkey and European Union. To analyse the energy case well both qualitative and quantitative methods will be used in this research. I would like to use qualitative methods to find out underlying reasons and motivations of actors by searching databases for current reports, articles and news related to the energy case. I will also use quantitative methods to support my arguments on Turkey’s importance and European Union need s on energy by statistical data and maps  provided by international organizations such as World Bank, International Energy Agency and USGS. As a theoretical background neo-functionalism will be used in this research to promote cooperation between Turkey and European Union. Neo-functionalism is one of the important theories that explains the European integration process. This theory has several aspects. First of all, Neo-functionalism claims that cooperation among states in a sector is likely to spread other sectors. Secondly, economic cooperation that leads to economic integration will increase the interactions among actors in the region. Lastly, the designed supranational bodies will deepen the cooperation among states. The most important part of this theory is the spill-over effect which refers to a mechanism by which an economic integration leads to political integration. To make an introduction, a clear definition of energy security is needed in this case. According to International Energy Agency, energy security is the uninterrupted availability of energy sources at an affordable price. Energy security has two dimensions. Long term energy security mainly deals with timely investments to supply energy in line with economic development and sustainable environmental needs. Short term energy security focuses on the ability of the energy system to reach promptly to a sudden change within the supply-demand  balance. European Union developed an energy policy to catch up the needs of long-term and short-term energy security. According to the Energy Union (2015), there are five target of European Union’s energy policy. They are to e nsure the functioning of the internal energy market and the interconnection of energy networks, ensure security of energy supply in the Union,  promote energy efficiency and energy saving, promote the development of new and   3 renewable forms of energy to better align and integrate climate change goals into the new market design and promote research, innovation and competitiveness. As part of its long-term energy strategy, the EU has set targets for 2020 and 2030. These cover emissions reduction, improved energy efficiency, and an increased share of renewables in the EU’s energy mix. It has also created an Energy Roadmap for 2050, in order to achieve its goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80-95%, when compared to 1990 levels, by 2050. Together, these goals provide the EU with a stable policy framework on greenhouse gas emissions, renewables and energy efficiency, which gives investors more certainty and confirms the EU's lead in these fields on a global scale. In the first chapter of this research, the historical background of Turkey and European Union relations on energy will be examined. In the second part of the research, Turkey’s recent developments on energy case through accession process and European Union’s demands from Turkey will be analysed. Following the latest developments, Turkey’s disadvantages on energy will be discussed in the third chapter. After the discussion of Turkey’s disadvantages, I will examine the current obstacles of European Union on energy in the fourth chapter. Disadvantages of both sides will be analysed under the Cyprus case and Russian aggressive  policies related to energy. Lastly, fifth chapter of the research will cover the importance of Turkey on energy. By giving a detailed perspective on the energy case, I will support my arguments on Turkey’s importance for further beneficial cooperation with European Union.   Historical Background of Energy Relations between Turkey and European Union Turkey and European Union relations on energy initiated after the candidacy status of Turkey in 1999 with Helsinki Summit. The harmonization of Turkey’s energy policy with EU acquis is an on-going process and Turkey has made a remarkable process on energy. The introductory meeting on energy was held in 2006. Within the framework of the introductory screening meeting of the Energy chapter, the presentations of the European Commission focused on electricity, natural gas, oil, coal, renewable energy sources, energy efficiency and demand management, nuclear energy and international agreements. As regards the Energy Chapter, the report prepared by the European Commission in March 2007 is still being discussed at the Council. Due to some political disputes among Turkey and other EU member states such as Greek Cypriot Administration, no improvement can be made so far.   On February 9, 2012 Quadruple Summit was held in Istanbul with the participation of   4 Minister for EU Affairs and Chief Negotiator Mr. Egemen Bağış and Ministe r of Energy and  Natural Resources Mr. Taner Yıldız and EU Commissioner for Enlargement and  Neighbourhood Policy Stefan Füle and Energy Commissioner Günther Öttinger. As a result of the meeting, it was decided to create a joint working group in order to determine the situation in the energy field and to draw a road map about what can be done in this context. Turkey-EU energy cooperation through the Joint Working Group will be examined under the energy chapter. In this context,   five key elements were identified for the cooperation in the Working Group Meetings held in March and April 2012. The key components are long term  perspectives on energy scenarios and energy mix, market integration and development of infrastructures of common interest, global and regional energy cooperation, promotion of renewable energy, energy efficiency and clean energy technologies, nuclear safety and radiation protection. As a result of the working group meetings, the “Turkey -EU Positive Agenda Enhanced EU-Turkey Energy Coop eration” document was produced and adopted on June 14, 2012 . This  positive agenda made a contribution to the integration of energy markets of Turkey and European Union. Such integration will not only secure the European Union’s energy supply  but also will create business opportunities in different sectors as the neo-functionalist view claims. The working group meeting related to electricity was held on 2013, the meetings related to natural gas were held in 2014 both in Brussels and Ankara. Issues on “nuclea r energy and radiation protection” and “energy efficiency and renewable energy” and ENTSO -E were discussed in the technical meetings organized in 2014. To secure energy supply resources, diversify and create competitive energy markets High Level Energy Dialogue was launched between European Union and Turkey. Joint statement release was made in 2015. This press release denoted the importance of Turkey as an emerging energy hub in the region. In order to improve their security of supply, Turkey and the European Union are promoting as partners the development of the Southern Gas Corridor. Both Turkey and European Union will continue to cooperate to implement the Trans-Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline (TANAP) project. TANAP is of vital importance for the European Union's and Turkey's security of supply and for the realization of the Southern Gas Corridor. The development of Turkey as a regional natural gas hub is of mutual interest and was taken up in the EU  –  Turkey Strategic High Level Energy Dialogue. A regular exchange of information on energy cooperation at the global and regional level would be to the benefit of   5  both sides. Turkey and the EU accept that the Dialogue is not a substitute to, but a complement and support of Turkey's accession process. In 2016, another joint press statement supported the continuity of energy cooperation among parties. In 2017, an EU-funded energy project was implemented by World Bank in Turkey. This  €11,8 million EU funded project will have a great impact not only in the full integration of the Turkish gas system but also on sustainable energy investments in Turkey along with further developing EU-Turkey energy cooperation. Turkey Progress Report in 2018 on energy and European Union’s demands from Turkey Energy security is the one of the most important aspects of Turkey and European Union which closer cooperation is beneficial for both sides. Despite the energy dependency, Turkey could secure remarkable volumes of hydrocarbons, diversify the energy sources and attract important investments by energy projects. The recent report prepared by European Commission in 2018 shows the progress Turkey made. Good progress in security of supply and renewable energy sector are achieved. Turkey put into force the national energy and mining strategy to improve and diversify the domestic resources. Turkey also increases the capacity of energy storage especially in liquid natural gas (LNG). Significant progress in relation to gas has been made. The construction of the first stage of the Trans-Anatolian Pipeline project (TANAP) was completed at the end of 2017. There has been remarkable  progress on the Turk Stream gas pipeline project related to infrastructure for delivering gas to Turkey. It is expected to be in force by 2019. The construction of the offshore pipelines was launched in May 2017 and over one third has now been completed. Significant progress in electricity networks has been made between The Turkish Electricity Transmission Company (TEIAS) and European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSO-E). Turkey improved its interconnection capacity with neighboring European states. Turkey has improved its internal energy market especially in electricity. The Energy Market Regulatory Authority produced two implementing regulations to improve information security and cyber security for its main energy infrastructure and restructure electricity side services. As mentioned in European Commission’s annual report, Turkey has also continued to adopt new leg islation in line with the EU’s Third Energy Package on tariffs and organized wholesale markets, with a view to creating a fair and transparent platform for gas traders.
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