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What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy

What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy
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    ACM Computers in Entertainment, Vol. 1, No. 1, October 2003, BOOK01. What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy JAMES PAUL GEEUniversity of Wisconsin-Madison  ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Good computer and video games like System Shock 2 ,  Deus Ex ,  Pikmin ,  Rise of Nations ,  Neverwinter Nights , and  Xenosaga: Episode 1 are learning machines. They get themselves learned and learned well, so that they get playedlong and hard by a great many people. This is how they and their designers survive and perpetuate themselves. If agame cannot be learned and even mastered at a certain level, it won’t get played by enough people, and thecompany that makes it will go broke. Good learning in games is a capitalist-driven Darwinian process of selectionof the fittest. Of course, game designers could have solved their learning problems by making games shorter andeasier, by dumbing them down, so to speak. But most gamers don’t want short and easy games. Thus, designersface and largely solve an intriguing educational dilemma, one also faced by schools and workplaces: how to get people, often young people, to learn and master something that is long and challenging—and enjoy it, to boot.Categories and Subject Descriptors: K.3.2 [ Computers and Education ]: Computer and Information ScienceEducationGeneral Terms: Experimentation, Human FactorsAdditional Key Words and Phrases: Video games, education, learning, literacy ____________________________________________________________________________________  In my book, What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy (New York:Palgrave/Macmillan,2003);, I argue that schools, workplaces, families, and academicresearchers have a lot to learn about learning from good computer and video games. Suchgames incorporate a whole set of fundamentally sound learning principles, principles thatcan be used in other settings, for example in teaching science in schools. In fact, thelearning principles that good games incorporate are all strongly supported by contemporaryresearch in cognitive science—the science that studies human thinking and learning throughlaboratory research, studies of the brain, and research at actual learning sites like classroomsand workplaces [e.g., see Bruer 1993; Clark 1997; Cognition and Technology Group atVanderbilt 1997; Lave 1996; New London Group 1996; Lave and Wenger 1991].Beyond using the learning principles that good games incorporate, I also argue thatschools, workplaces, and families can use games and game technologies to enhancelearning. Further, I believe that use of games and game technologies for learning content inschools and skills in workplaces will become pervasive. Many parents, by getting their sometimes quite young children to play games while actively thinking about the game’sconnections to other games, media, texts, and the world are already doing so. In field studieswe are conducting at the University of Wisconsin, we have watched seven-year-olds play  Age of Mythology , read about mythology inside and outside the game on web sites, borrow  _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Author’s address: University of Wisconsin-Madison, 225 N. Mills St.Madison, WI 53706 WI. Email: Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for personal or classroom is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or direct commercial advantage and that copies show thisnotice on the first page or initial screen of display along with full citation. Copyright for components of this work   2   • J.P. Gee ACM Computers in Entertainment, Vol. 1, No. 1, October 2003.   owned by others than ACM must be honored. Abstracting with credit is permitted. To copy otherwise, to republish,to post on servers, to distribute to lists, or to use any component of this work in other works requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. Permission may be requested from Publications Dept., ACM, Inc., 1515 Broadway, NewYork, NY 10036, USA, fax: +1-212-869-0481, or© 2003 ACM 1544-3574/03/1000-BOOK01 $5.00  books on mythology from the library, and draw pictures and write stories connected to thegame and other mythological themes. They think about the connections between  Age of  Mythology and  Age of Empires , between mythological figures and popular culturesuperheroes, and the connections of all of them to history and society. This is education atits best, and it is happening at home, outside of school.Let me give a few examples of the good learning principles that are incorporated in goodgames (36 principles are discussed in my book). Good games give information “ondemand” and “just in time,” not out of the contexts of actual use or apart from people’s purposes and goals, something that happens too often in schools. System Shock 2 , for instance, spreads, throughout the game, the sort of information typically found in a manual.As they move through the initial levels of the game, players can request just the rightinformation (by pressing on a little green kiosk) and make use of it or see it applied soonafter having read it. People are quite poor at understanding and remembering informationthey have received out of context or too long before they can make use of it [Barsalou 1999;Brown et al. 1989; Glenberg and Robertson 1999]. Good games never do this to players, butfind ways to put information inside the worlds the players move through, and make clear themeaning of such information and how it applies to that world.Good games operate at the outer and growing edge of a player’s competence, remainingchallenging, but do-able, while schools often operate at the lowest common denominator [diSessa 2000]. Since games are often challenging, but do-able, they are often also pleasantly frustrating, which is a very motivating state for human beings. To achieve this,good games allow players to customize the game to their own levels of ability and styles of learning. For instance, Rise of Nations lets players tweak almost every element in the game,and offers skills tests as well, to ensure that nearly everyone can find the outer edge of their competence. Furthermore, players can continually adjust the game as their competencegrows.Games allow players to be producers and not just consumers. Along with the designer,the player’s actions co-create the game world. As players make choices about what to buildin  Rise of Nations , what skills and missions to choose in The Elder Scrolls: Morrowind  , or what moral decisions to make in Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic  players are as muchdesigners of the game as the srcinal innovators. Furthermore, players can use software thatcomes with the game to build new scenarios, maps, or episodes (for example, a scenario in  Age of Mythology or a skateboard park in Tony Hawk  ). Too often, students in schoolsconsume, but do not produce, knowledge, and rarely get to help design the curriculum[Brown 1994].Good games confront players in the initial game levels with problems that arespecifically designed to allow players to form good generalizations about what will work well later when they face more complex problems. Often, in fact, the initial levels of a gameare in actuality hidden tutorials. Work in cognitive science has shown that people need to be presented with problems in a fruitful order, getting initial problems that set up goodgeneralizations for later problems. If they are confronted too early with problems that aretoo complex, they often come up with creative solutions, but ones that turn out, in the end,  What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy • 3 ACM Computers in Entertainment, Vol. 1, No. 1, October 2003.   not to be very helpful for working on other problems later on [Elman 1993]. Good gamesdon’t do this, but order problems in helpful ways.At the same time, games create “a cycle of expertise” [Bereiter and Scardamalia 1989].At the outset, the game repeatedly confronts players with a similar type of problem, for example, enemies like the head crabs in  Half-Life , until players achieve a routinized, taken-for-granted mastery of certain skills. Then the game confronts players with a new problem,for instance, a new type of enemy or a boss, which forces the players to rethink their nowtaken-for-granted mastery and to integrate their old skills with new ones. Then these newsorts of problems are practiced until a new higher-order routinized, taken-for-grantedmastery occurs. This cycle is repeated throughout the game. In many a game, the last bossrequires a last re-opening of one’s taken-for-granted tool kit. This cycle is the basis for  producing expertise in any area. Good games are models for the production of expertise.Motivation is the most important factor that drives learning. When motivation dies,learning dies and playing stops. Cognitive science has had a hard time defining motivation,though one definition is a learner’s willingness to make an extended commitment to engagein a new area of learning [diSessa 2000]. Since good games are highly motivating to a greatmany people, we can learn from them how motivation is created and sustained.In computer and video games, players engage in “action at a distance,” much likeremotely manipulating a robot, but in a far more fine-grained fashion. Cognitive researchsuggests that such fine-grained action at a distance actually causes humans to feel as if their  bodies and minds have stretched into a new space [Clark 2003], a highly motivating state.Books and movies, for all their virtues, cannot do this. The more a player can manipulate agame character and make decisions that impact on the character, the more the player investsin the character and the game at a deep level. This investment appears to be the deepestfoundation of a player’s motivation in sticking with and eventually mastering a game.In a sense, all learning involves “playing a character.” In a science classroom, learningworks best if students think, act, and value like scientists. Games can show us how to get people to invest in new identities or roles, which can, in turn, become powerful motivatorsfor new and deep learning in classrooms and workplaces.Finally, we can state that when players play in massive multiplayer games, they oftencollaborate in teams, each using a different, but overlapping, set of skills, and shareknowledge, skills, and values with others both inside the game and on various Internet sites.In the process, they create distributed and dispersed knowledge within a community in waysthat would please any contemporary high-tech, cross-functional-team-centered workplace[Wenger et al. 2002]. In this respect, games may be better sites for preparing workers for modern workplaces than traditional schools. However, in the end, the real importance of good computer and video games is that they allow people to re-create themselves in newworlds and achieve recreation and deep learning at one and the same time. REFERENCES B ARSALOU , L. W. 1999. Language comprehension: Archival memory or preparation for situated action.  Discourse Process. 28 (1999), 61–80.B EREITER  , C. AND S CARDAMALIA , M. 1993. Surpassing Ourselves: An Inquiry into the Nature and Implications of  Expertise. Open Court, Chicago:B ROWN , A.L. 1994. The advancement of learning.  Eduational Res. 23 (1994), 4-12.B ROWN , A. L., C OLLINS , A., AND D UGUID 1989. Situated cognition and the culture of learning . Educational Res.18 (1989), 32-42.B RUER  , J. T. 1993. Schools for Rhought: A Science of Learning in the Classroom. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.  4   • J.P. Gee ACM Computers in Entertainment, Vol. 1, No. 1, October 2003.   C LARK  , A. 1997.  Being There: Putting Brain, Body, and World Together Again . MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.C LARK  , A. 2003.  Natural-Born Cyborgs: Why Minds and Technologies Are Made to Merge. Oxford UniversityPress, Oxford, UK.C OGNITION AND T ECHNOLOGY G ROUP AT V ANDERBILT . 1997. The Jasper Project: Lessons in Curriculum, Instruction, Assessment, and Professional Development. Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ.D I S ESSA , A. A. 2000 . Changing Minds . MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.E LMAN , J. 1991. Incremental learning, or the importance of starting small. Tech. Rep. 9101, Center for Researchin Language, Univ. of California at San Diego.G LENBERG , A. M. AND R  OBERTSON , D. A. 1999. Indexical understanding of instructions.  Discourse Process. 28 (1999  ), 1-26.L AVE , J. 1996. Teaching, as learning, in practice.  Mind, Culture, and Activity 3 (1996), 149-164.L AVE , J. AND W ENGER  , E. 1991. Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation . Cambridge UniversityPress, Cambridge, UK. N EW L ONDON G ROUP . 1996. A pedagogy of multiliteracies: Designing social futures.  Harvard Educational Rev.66  (1996), 60-92.P ELLIGRINO , J. W., C HUDOWSKY , N., AND G LASER  , R. 2001.  Knowing What Students Know: The Science and  Design of Educational Assessment. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.W ENGER  , E., M C D ERMOTT , R., AND S  NYDER  , W. M. 2002. Cultivating Cmmunities of Practice . Harvard BusinessSchool Press, Cambridge, MA.
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