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A STUDY OF THE ACUTE EFFECTS OF MUSIC LISTENING ON BRAIN ACTIVITIES UNDERLYING CREATIVITY AMONG GRADUATE STUDENTS SIRIRAT THONGSRI A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE (NEUROSCIENCE) FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES MAHIDOL UNIVERSITY 2017 COPYRIGHT OF MAHIDOL UNIVERSITY Thesis entitl ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First of all, the success of this thesis would not have been possible without an encorragement of my major advisor, Asst. Prof. Vorasith Siripornpanich. I would like to greatly appreciate him for giving me a good opportunity to join in Brain Electrophysiology Laboratory & Cognitive Research Unit. His generous guidance, very kind support and particulary believe in my potential are a valuable sustenance for me. I heartily thank my co-advisors, Assoc. Prof. Nuanchan Chutabhakdikul and Assoc. Prof. Naiphinich Kotchabhakdi, for their warmly suggestion and beneficial comments. Their kindliness motivated me to improve on my thesis. I would like to express my gratitude to an external examination committee, Prof. Emeritus Ratree Sudsuang, for her good advices and useful comments on my works. In addition, I would like to deepest gratitude to Assoc. Prof. Aree Punmanee from Kasambandit Universtity for excellent supervision on the neuropsychological test of crativity (TTCT). She gave me an attentive training, kind suggestion and superb comments. I am also gratitude to thank all my partipants for their willingness and great cooperation. Specially, this study was supported by FY2015 thesis grant for master degree from The National Research Council of Thailand. I would like to extend my thanks to all teachers and staffs in the Research Center for Neuroscience, Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Mahidol University for their help and all good supports. My special thanks give to my lab members and friends for their care, wonderful friendship and always cheer me up. I also would like to thank RT senior at oral and maxillofacial rediology clinic, Golden jubilee medical center for a warmly support. Finally, I would like to acknowledge with wholely gratitude to my beloved parents, sister and family for their encouragement in every ways. Thanks for believe in me and always stand by my side. Sirirat Thongsri A STUDY OF THE ACUTE EFFECTS OF MUSIC LISTENING ON BRAIN ACTIVITIES UNDERLYING CREATIVITY AMONG GRADUATE STUDENTS SIRIRAT THONGSRI MBNS/M M.Sc. (NEUROSCIENCE) THESIS ADVISORY COMMITTEE: VORASITH SIRIPORNPANISH, M.D., NAIPHINICH KOTCHABHAKDI, Ph.D., NUANCHAN CHUTABHAKDIKUL, Ph.D. ABSTRACT Creativity is an important cognitive ability for performing activities in daily life, particularly in creative divergent thinking. There are many researches investigating the effects of external stimuli which can promote creative ability. The objective of this study was to investigate the acute effects of music listening on creative divergent thinking by evaluating the brain activities with electroencephalography (EEG) and neuropsychological tests, besides investigating factors involving creativity in individuals. Participants in this study were forty graduate students (male = 7, female = 33), age range between years old, who were assigned into instrumental music, vocal music and control groups. The results of quantitative EEG analysis during sound interventions compared with resting state revealed that instrumental music listening could induce drowsiness more than vocal music listening and sitting in silent circumstance. However, the effect of music listening or sitting in silence for a short period did not affect the creative ability significantly. The brain waves during performing creativity test in this study showed increment of delta, theta, and beta waves over anterior and posterior brain regions, while alpha wave decreased over central brain area. These brain wave patterns may indicate the activation of cortical neurons when generating creative idea. Moreover, the results of event relatedpotential (ERP) with Go-NoGo task that was used for assessment of attention and inhibition correlated with specific aspects of creativity. The ability of cognitive inhibition could facilitate creative fluency, while attention was associated with creative elaboration and abstractness of idea. The present study concluded that listening to music for a short period could not enhance creativity directly, but creative idea generated both required various factors and cognitive processing. This work also provided more understanding about the brain activities during music listening and neural mechanisms underlying creative idea processing. KEY WORDS: CREATIVITY/ MUSIC LISTENING/ ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY/ TORRANCE TEST OF CREATIVE THINKING/ GO- NOGO TASK 135 pages การศ กษาผลระยะส นของการฟ งดนตร ต อการทางานของสมองท เป นพ นฐานของความค ดสร างสรรค ในน กศ กษาระด บ บ ณฑ ตศ กษา A STUDY OF THE ACUTE EFFECTS OF MUSIC LISTENING ON BRAIN ACTIVITIES UNDERLYING CREATIVITY AMONG GRADUATE STUDENTS ศ ร ร ตน ทองศร MBNS/M วท.ม. (ประสาทว ทยาศาสตร ) คณะกรรมการท ปร กษาว ทยาน พนธ : วรส ทธ ศ ร พรพาณ ชย, M.D., น ยพ น จ คชภ กด, Ph.D., นวลจ นทร จ ฑาภ กด ก ล, Ph.D. บทค ดย อ ความค ดสร างสรรค เป นความสามารถด านการร ค ดท ม ความสาค ญอย างย งต อการดาเน นก จกรรมต างๆใน ช ว ตประจาว น โดยเฉพาะความค ดสร างสรรค ชน ดอเนกน ย ม งานว จ ยจานวนมากศ กษาผลของส งเร าจากภายนอกท สามารถ ส งเสร มความสามารถด านความค ดสร างสรรค จ ดประสงค ของการศ กษาในคร งน ค อ ศ กษาผลระยะส นของการฟ งดนตร ต อ ความค ดสร างสรรค เช งอเนกน ยโดยประเม นจากการทางานสมองด วยการว ดคล นไฟฟ าสมองและแบบทดสอบประสาท จ ตว ทยา อ กท งย งศ กษาป จจ ยท เก ยวข องต อความค ดสร างสรรค เฉพาะบ คคล อาสาสม ครในการศ กษาคร งน เป นน กศ กษา ระด บบ ณฑ ตศ กษาจานวน 40 คน (ชาย 7 คนและหญ ง 33 คน) อาย ระหว าง 24 ถ ง 30ป อาสาสม ครจะถ กแบ งเข ากล ม ได แก กล มเพลงบรรเลง เพลงท ม คาร อง และกล มควบค ม ผลการว เคราะห คล นไฟฟ าสมองเช งปร มาณขณะฟ งเส ยงเปร ยบเท ยบก บ สภาวะพ กพบว า การฟ งเพลงบรรเลงทาให อาสาสม ครร ส กง วงมากกว าการฟ งเพลงท ม คาร องและการน งโดยปราศจากเส ยง กระต น อย างไรก ตามผลของการฟ งเพลงหร อการน งสงบน งเป นระยะเวลาส นๆไม ม ผลต อความสามารถด านความค ด สร างสรรค อย างม น ยสาค ญ คล นไฟฟ าสมองขณะทาแบบทดสอบด านความค ดสร างสรรค ในการศ กษาน แสดงให เห นการ เพ มข นของคล นเดลต า ธ ต า และเบต าในบร เวณสมองด านหน าและด านหล ง ขณะท คล นอ ลฟ าลดลงบร เวณแนวกลางของ สมอง ร ปแบบของคล นไฟฟ าสมองด งกล าวในขณะเก ดความค ดสร างสรรค นอกจากน ผลของการศ กษาคล นไฟฟ าสมอง ชน ดอ อาร พ ร วมก บแบบทดสอบ Go-NoGo ซ งใช ประเม นความต งใจจดจ อและความย บย งม ความส มพ นธ ก บความค ด สร างสรรค เฉพาะด าน ความสามารถในการย บย งความค ดช วยส งเสร มความค ดสร างสรรค เช งค ดคล อง ในขณะท ความ ต งใจจดจ อม ความส มพ นธ ก บความค ดสร างสรรค เช งความละเอ ยดลออและการค ดเช งนามธรรม การศ กษาน สร ปได ว าการ ฟ งดนตร ในช วงส นๆ ไม สามารถช วยเพ มความค ดสร างสรรค ได โดยตรง แต การเก ดความค ดสร างสรรค อาศ ยป จจ ยท หลากหลายและกระบวนการร ค ดมาร วมก น การศ กษาน ย งช วยเพ มความเข าใจเก ยวก บการทางานของสมองขณะได ฟ ง เส ยงดนตร และกลไกของสมองอ นเป นพ นฐานของกระบวนการทางความค ดสร างสรรค 135 หน า CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Creativity is the complex cognitive ability in human. Sometimes, it may be an unexpected phenomenon that has been known as eureka experience (Dietrich and Kanso, 2010). However, creativity in our daily life is based on the concept of divergent thinking. The divergent thinking is defined as the ability to generate multiple solutions for open-ended problems that require both novelty and appropriateness. It is different from bizarre thinking in psychiatric patients who may have the novelty idea but uselessness (Runco & Jaeger, 2012). Historically, the concept of creativity is appeared for very long time ago, but the empirical research for creative ability in neuroscience perspective is conducted for a few decades. In the past, creativity was believed to be the same process with the intelligence. Until 1950s, Joy Paul Guilford, an American psychologist, was the first person who distinguished the creativity from the general intellectual features. He also suggested that creative ability was the important cognitive domain of human. After that, Guilford and his colleague proposed the first neuropsychological test for evaluation of divergent thinking (Guilford & Paul, 1967). Then, the concept of creative divergent thinking was integrated into the knowledge in several fields such as psychology, economics, educations and neurosciences. In neuroscience viewpoint, the study of creativity focuses on the neural mechanisms as well as the brain area for creative thinking. The advance scientific techniques including functional neuroimaging and electrophysiology-based methods can be used to combine with neuropsychological tests in order to investigate the neural basis of creativity. Currently, however, there are obscure and arguable evidences of the neural mechanisms underlying creativity. Creativity is a cognitive potential that can be modulated across the life span, but mostly developed in childhood (Romero et al., 2012). A number of researches have investigated the potential interventions for enhancing creative ability in adults. These techniques include meditations, exercise, art, and music training which have known to induce the neural plasticity of the brain (Horan, 2009; Wan & Schlaug, 2010). However, the previously mentioned interventions normally need long duration of exposure or practice, but the short period of auditory stimulation, such as music listening for minutes, was found to increase cognitive performance. For instance, researchers demonstrated the improvement of visuospatial performance after listening to 10 minutes of Mozart s songs that was known as Mozart effect (Jaušovec & Habe, 2005; Rauscher et al., 1993). Although the influence of Mozart effect on cognitive process was strongly argued in the present, the acute effect of music listening on human cognition, such as creativity, was no precisely conclusion (Schellenberg, 2012). In addition, music also has an influence on emotion and arousal state of listeners. Therefore, any short-term intervention and easy to perform with minimal adverse effect, such as music listening, is a good candidate for study its benefits on creative ability. The previous research suggested that positive affect, motivation and arousal were associated with creative ability (Baumann & Kuhl, 2005; Oppezzo & Schwartz, 2014; Pereira et al., 2011). In contrast, negative emotion and stress were related to the impairment of creative ability (Byron & Khazanchi, 2011). However, apart from the environmental factor, the other cognitive processing, such as inhibitory control, were hypothesized to involve with creative thinking. To investigate individual creative ability, this study plan to use the combination of neuropsychological test and electroencephalogram (EEG). The Torrance test of creative thinking is a neuropsychological test that widely used for measurement of creative divergent thinking. The figural issue of TTCT is generally used to assess creativity in kindergarten to adulthood. The creativity score of TTCT can be divided into 5 subscales including fluency, originality, elaboration, abstractness of titles and resistance premature of closer (Kim, 2006). In addition, the EEG is the neuroscience method for studying the brain activities and can be used to explore the neural mechanisms of creativity. Basically, EEG is broadly used due to its non-invasiveness and the greatest temporal resolution. Even though, it can detect neural activation merely the surface of cortical brain. To the best of my knowledge, this work seems to be the first study for interesting neural activities with EEG during performing the TTCT. For exploring the neural mechanisms of inhibitory control, the event-related potentials (ERP) can be used with inhibitory control paradigm. ERP is the time-locked EEG response to external stimuli and can be used with cognitive task. In this study, Go-NoGo task is planned to apply with ERP recording. Go-NoGo task is a famous cognitive task used for evaluation of attention as well as inhibitory control in Go and NoGo conditions respectively. In brief, creativity is unexpected phenomenon and there are several factors that contribute difficulty to assess. The characteristics of brain activity during creative idea generation is regarded as an indicator for neural mechanism underlying creativity. The study of attention and inhibitory control with Go-NoGo task and ERP recording is also performed. The current study plan to fill the gap of creativity research by correlated behavioral performance in tasks of creativity and inhibitory control with neural activities measured by EEG and ERP. Moreover, the effect of various types of music listening on creativity is also conducted. CHAPTER II OBJECTIVES Creativity is an ability which is important for everyday life. There are several factors that influence the creative ability. Previous researches attempted to propose many ways for promoting the creativity such as meditation, exercise, art and music training. However, most studies have focused on the long-term effect of interventions. Meanwhile, the acute creativity-promoting effect is not well investigated. Therefore, the present study interests in the effects of the intervention that easily performed and required short duration on individual creative divergent thinking. Listening to relaxed music is hypothesized to be correlated with increase creative performance. Moreover, the other cognitions including inhibitory control and attention are predicted to involve in creative thinking process. Consequently, the study hypothesis is 15 minute-listening to different musical styles can differently promote the creative ability as well as underlying neural activities. According to the hypothesis as mentioned, this study plans to investigate via the following specific objectives; 1. To determine the acute effects of music listening on creative divergent thinking task 2. To demonstrate the alteration of neural activities during listening to the different music styles 3. To investigate the neural activities underlying the generation of creative idea 4. To understand the correlation between neural mechanisms of attention as well as inhibitory control and creativity performance 5. To study the individual s affecting factors of creative idea generation CHAPTER III LITERATURE REVIEW 3.1 The overview of creativity Creativity is a crucial ability of human. It is the origin of humankind s civilization. Even though creativity is an individual capability, its advantages can affect both self and society. For instance, higher creative person always find out solutions and solve the problems in their works better than normal. Furthermore, scientific ideas, new inventions and innovations are often originated from creativity. Many creative products provide social benefits to improve the quality life of the mankind. The word creativity appeared for long time ago. It was understood to be a talent beyond human ability. Since modern age of technology, the study in creativity topic is broadly interested from many research fields such as education, economics, engineering, psychology and neurosciences. Particularly, cognitive neuroscience research attempts to investigate neural mechanisms and relative behavior underlying creativity processes. There are empirical researches which using modern and advance scientific techniques in order to demonstrate brain and neural basis of creativity, but their results have been debated. Therefore, an actually neural mechanisms underlying creativity remains unclear in present. More evidences and new knowledge are greatly required to extend our understanding about creative cognition The timeline of creativity: historical approach The first evidence of creativity appeared before the Christian era. The foundation of word creativity came from Latin, creō or creare, that mean to make or to produce. This word was firstly emerged in English as early as fortieth century (Niu & Sternberg, 2006, Sternberg & Kaufman, 2010). The early concept of creativity is based on religious belief that is separated into Western and Eastern backgrounds (Niu & Sternberg, 2002, Niu & Sternberg, 2006). The Western concept was begun by ancient Greek philosopher who believed creativity was the story of gods or divine creativity. Plato, a famous Greek philosopher, notified that creativity was not a reality but it was the imitation from nature and gods. While, the creativity concept in Eastern background originated from ancient Chinese. The first evidence appeared in the context chuang zao li that has a same meaning as to make in English. The Eastern concept mostly believe in supernatural that based on the religions of Zen and Tao. According to early creativity s concept, natural creativity was the concept of the Eastern as similar as divine creativity in the Western (Niu & Sternberg, 2006). The enlightenment period, early 18 th to 19 th century, became to the age of globalization and technology. The study in creativity topic dramatically increased. Until 20 th century, the empirical researches strongly investigated creativity via scientific methods instead of philosophical views as the past (Dacey, 1999, Sternberg & Kaufman, 2010). In nowadays, the 21 st century, modern concept of creativity is widely accepted in term of individual creative cognition. The investigations and evaluation of this ability are proved by reliable techniques such as neuroimaging and electrophysiology (Niu & Sternberg, 2006) Definition of creativity The regular definition of creativity is the ability to produce works or ideas that require for both novelty and appropriateness (Ochse, 1990, Sternberg & Lubart, 1996, Sternberg, 1999). Novelty is generally identified by originality, but it is not sufficient for creative ability. The new idea may be useless or inappropriateness ideas, such as bizarre thinking of psychiatric patient. Hence, creativity need to emphasized on novelty and appropriateness (Runco & Jaeger, 2012) Classification of creativity Creativity can be classified by several guidelines. An earlier classification distinguished creativity into convergent and divergent thinking. It was proposed by J. P. Guilford in 1950s. Convergent thinking is defined as ability to solve the problem in a specific solution, while divergent thinking is defined as ability to find out multiple solutions for the open end problem (Guilford, 1967). Recent review accumulates many articles and theories together that classified creativity into 3 domains, including insight, divergent thinking, and artistic creativity (Dietrich & Kanso, 2010). Firstly, the creative insight domain was defined as the ability to modulate concepts or changing ways to find out solutions and solve problems which unexpected or so-called Eureka experience. The second domain, divergent thinking was mostly interested and accepted in the research studies. The last one was artistic domain that usually focus on the creative ability in art, music, dancing and painting, but in research field had a few evidences (Dietrich & Kanso, 2010, Kounios & Beeman, 2014). 3.2 The psychological models and creativity The study of creativity in psychological aspect ordinarily explains in the context of theories and models. The famous theory which links creativity to intelligence is the threshold theory. In addition, there are a number of acceptable models of creativity in psychological viewpoint including creative processing model by Wallas and 4C model The threshold theory In early psychological researches, creativity was assumed to be ability as same as intelligence in human. For example, Sir Francis Galton suggested the inheritance of intelligence in The English psychologist, Charles Edward Spearman proposed the model of human intelligence in 1904 and the study of Genetics of genius was suggested by Lewis Madison Terman in1957. All of these hypotheses mentioned that creativity was only a partial intelligence (Dacey, 1999). Moreover, Barron (1963) also support that high creative pe
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