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Advances in Cryogenic Engineering

Advances in Cryogenic Engineering A Cryogenic Engineering Conference Publication Advances in Cryogenic Engineering VOLUME 1 Proceedings of the 1954 Cryogenic Engineering Conference National Bureau of Standards
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Advances in Cryogenic Engineering A Cryogenic Engineering Conference Publication Advances in Cryogenic Engineering VOLUME 1 Proceedings of the 1954 Cryogenic Engineering Conference National Bureau of Standards Boulder, Colorado September K. D. TIMMERHAUS, Editor Chemical Engineering Department University of Colorado Boulder. Colorado Distributed by PLENUM PRESS. Inc., NEW YORK 1960 ISBN-13: DOl: / e-isbn-13: Softcover reprint of the hardcover I st edition 1960 NOBLE OFFSET PRINTERS, INC. NEW YORK 3, N. Y. FOREWORD More than sixty years have elapsed since Linde first liquefied air on a commercial scale and prepared the way for separating of other gaseous mixtures. His work, however, was not of an isolated nature. It was conceived eighteen years after air had, for the first time, been liquefied in the laboratory by Pictet in Geneva and Caillete in Paris. Linde's liquefaction of air was followed by Dewar's work on hydrogen liquefaction in London and by the setting up at Leiden of Kamerlingh Onnes's famous low temperature laboratory. These advances in low temperature or cryogenic technology have resulted in the establishment of a completely new and thriving industry. Cryogenic engineering is concerned with developing and improving low temperature processes, techniques, and equipment; determining the physical properties of structural and related materials used in producing, maintaining, and using low temperatures; and the practical application of low temperature techniques and processes. These low temperatures are below those usually encountered in refrigerating engineering. It is rather difficult to assign a definite temperature which serves to divide refrigerating engineering from cryogenic engineering. A temperature below _lsooc, however, is generally associated with cryogenic engineering. There is ample reason for treating cryogenic engineering as a special field of engineering. The physical properties of materials at very low temperatures differ so markedly from those commonly encountered that the engineer cannot rely on his ordinary experience. Because of the rapid growth of this field of engineering in the past ten to fifteen years, many new and highly complex engineering problems have arisen in the low temperature field. In order to improve the interchange of information among organizations active in cryogenic engineering, the National Bureau of Standards-Atomic Energy Commission Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado, sponsored the first Cryogenic Engineering Conference on September 8, 9 and 10, 19S4 at the National Bureau of Standards Boulder Laboratories. Succeeding conferences held in Boulder, Colorado, Boston, Massachusetts, and Berkeley, California have striven to continue the original idea of the conference. i To R. B. Scott, chief of the Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory of the National Bureau of Standards must go much of the credit for initiating these annual conferences. The first Cryogenic Engineering Conference Committee headed by Scott was composed entirely of National Bureau of Standards I personnel. Subsequent committees have been elected for a two year term by delegates attending the conferences. The committee is presently composed of six members and a permanent secretary. The 1954 conference was held as a part of the dedication and scientific meetings of the Boulder Laboratories with over two hundred delegates in attendance. The importance of this conference is noted with the continual increase in attendance and participation of scientists and engineers from all parts of the country and the world. Attendance at the Berkeley, California conference was close to seven hundred delegates. Proceedings of each conference held to date have been published to further improve the interchange of information among low temperature engineers and scientists. The Proceedings of the 1954 Cryogenic EngineeringConference was originally published by the National Bureau of Standards as NBS Report Proceedings of successive conferences were published by the Cryogenic Engineering Conference. Publication funds were obtained from generous industrial contributions. Acknowledgment to these concerns is given in each Proceedings. The demand for the Proceedings of these annual conferences, however, has far exceeded the supply. Consequently the Cryogenic Engineering Conference Committee in 1959 decided to reprint all the past Proceedings in a hard cover edition entitled Advances in Cryogenic Engineering. Since the 1954 Proceedings was a government publication, permission was obtained from the National Bureau of Standards to re-edit NBS Report 3517 and reprint it as part ofthe above series. Space does not permit acknowledgment of all individuals responsible for either the original or the reprinted Proceedings. Certainly the encouragement of many in the cryogenic engineering field and the cooperation of the University of Colorado are deeply appreciated by the editor. K. D. Timmerhaus, Editor Chemical Engineering Dept. University of Colorado January, 1960 Boulder, Colorado ii 1954 CRYOGENIC ENGINEERING CONFERENCE COMMITTEE B. W. Birmingham National Bureau of Standards W. B. Hanson National Bureau of Standards R. B. Jacobs National Bureau of Standards V. J. Johnson National Bureau of Standards M. M. Reynolds National Bureau of Standards R. B. Scott National Bureau of Standards ACKNOWLEDGMENT The Cryogenic Engineering Conference Committee is grateful to the National Bureau of Standards for their permission to reprint the Proceedings of the 1954 Cryogenic Engineering Conference (NBS Report 3517) in its entirety and acknowledges the cooperation and help received from many National Bureau of Standards personnel in both the NBS Report 3517 and the present publications. Special thanks must be given to W. B. Hanson who assembled the original Proceedings of the 1954 Cryogenic Engineering Conference and who helped initiate many ideas which were incorporated in later Proceedings. In addition the editor wishes to acknowledge the thankless task of typing and proofreading done by M. S. Koerner and J. L. Timmerhaus, respectively, on all the Proceedings to date. iii CONTENTS FOREWORD i 1954 CRYOGENIC ENGINEERING CONFERENCE COMMIT T EE iii ACKNOWLEDGMENT PAPERS PRESENTED General Remarks iii iv A Few Remarks on the Beginnings of the NBS-AEC Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory F. G. Brickwedde National Bureau of Standards Research Facilities of the NBS-AEC Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory Cryogenic Equipment A-I An Efficient Vacuum-Jacketed Liquid Nitrogen or Liquid Oxygen Storage Vessel A-2 N. C. Hallet, H. W. Altman, M. L. Yeager and C. L. Newton Herrick L. Johnston, Inc. The Aluminum Dewar H. A. Eichstaedt Ronan and Kunzl, Inc A-3 Liquid Oxygen Equipment for Use in Aircraft R. W. Roundy Wright Air Development Center v A-4 A-5 The Refrigerated Transport Dewar T. Stearns, D. J. Sandell and J. S. Burlew Cambridge Corporation Helium Refrigeration A. Pastuhov Arthur D. Little, Inc A-6 The Herrick L. Johnston Air Tactical Dewar 44 C. B. Hood, Jr., H. W. A,ltman, M. L. Yeager, N. C. Hallett and L. D. Wagner Herrick L. Johnston, Inc. Cryogenic Equipment (continued) B-1 Experimental Dewars Developed by the National Bureau of Standards 49 B. W. Birmingham, E. H. Brown, C. R. Class and A. F. Schmidt B-2 A Re-liquefying Hydrogen Refrigerator.. 62 G. E. McIntosh, D. B. Mann, J. Macinko and P. C. Vander Arend B-3 B-4 Joining Aluminum to Stainless Steel M. C. Smith and D. D. Rabb The Transfer of Liquefied Gases R. B. Jacobs, R. J. Richards and S. B. Schwartz VI 77 87 B-5 A Transfer Line for Liquefied Gases 95 K. B. Martin and O. E. Park B-6 Performance of an Air Expansion Engine 105 J. E. Jensen B-7 A High-Vacuum Seal-Off Valve R. J. Richards Low Temperature Instrumentation C-l Carbon Resistors, Pressure Transducers and Vibration Pickups Used for Measurements of Temperature, Pressure and Vibration at Liquid Hydrogen Temperatures D. J. Sandell, R. R. Lee, H. Newman, R. Kinkaid and R. Mercure Cambridge Corporation 114 C-2 Continuous Analysis of Ortho-Parahydrogen Mixtures 122 D. H. Weitzel and R. L. Hershey C-3 A Constant Temperature Control System for the Range, Room Temperature to -320 F......,.... 1Z6 L. W. Brandt, L. Stroud and W. M. Deaton U. S. Bureau of Mines vii C-4 C-5 A Hydrogen Gas Meter Unit with Remote Totalization of Flow. R. H. Kropschot Pulsation Damping C. R. Myer C -6 The Application of Commercial Electrical Equipment to Locations where Hydrogen Gas May Exist in Quantities Sufficient to Produce Explosive or Ignitable Mixtures C-7 K. A. Woodard Stearns -Roger Manufacturing Company Behavior of Electrical Insulation Ma.terials and of Halogenated Hydrocarbon Refrigerants at Temperatures of _100 0 to F... J. T. Wilson The Louis Allis Company 148 Low Temperature Instrumentation (continued) D-l D-2 Thermistor Indicating Flowmeter for Low Flow Rates of Nitrogen and Hydrogen Gases. J. W. Allen, M. M. Fulk and M. M. Reynolds A Sensitive Electronic Liquid Level Indicator for Condensed Gases D. W. Braudaway, S. B. Schwartz and J. W. Allen VIll D-3 Low Temperature Electrical Resistance of Fifteen Commercial Conductors 156 O. E. Park, M. M. Fulk and M. M. Reynolds D-4 Carbon Resistors and Variable Differential Transformers for Liquid Level Indication. 158 D-5 D-6 S. B. Schwartz and A. E. Wilson Glass in Cryogenics H. L. Landay Landay Scientific Glass Laboratory Modification of a Detector for Use Hydrogen. Calorimetric Oxygen with Non-Equilibrium A. E. Wilson, S. B. Schwartz and R. J. Corruccini D-7 An Optical Means of Liquid Level Sensing 168 R. L. Blumberg University of California D-8 Trace Oxygen Analysis for Liquid Hydrogen Production E. Catalano ix Cryogenic Applications E-l Helium Production Process P. V. Mullins U. S. Bureau of Mines 171 E-2 E-3 Low Temperature Liquids as Coolants in Guided Missiles H. G. Paul Redstone Arsenal The Application of Low Temperature Proces ses in Production of Chemicals. C. F. Hauck Blaw-Knox Company E-4 Cryogenic Engineering in the Production and Distribution of Liquefied Atmospheric Gases H. J. Portzer Linde Air Products Company E-5 Carbon Dioxide in Low Temperature Testing F. C. Seefeldt Liquid Carbonic Corpqration Low Temperature Insulation F-l Performance of Heat Insulating Materials Down to 20 0 K 212 H. L. Johnston, C. B. Hood, Jr., J. Bigeleisen, R. W. Powers and J. B. Ziegler Ohio State University x F-2 F-3 F -4 Vacuum-Powder Insulation... M. M. Reynolds, J. D. Brown, M. M. Fulk, O. E. Park and G. W. Curtis Thermal Radiation Absorption by Metals M. M. Fulk, M. M. Reynolds and O. E. Park Styrofoam (Expanded Polystyrene) Insulation at Low Temperatures H. J. Waite Dow Chemical Company Properties of Materials G-l G-2 G-3 G- 4 The Mechanical Properties Testing Program at the NBS -AEC Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory R. H. Kropschot Apparatus for Tensile Testing in the Temperature Range of to K E. T. Wessel Westinghouse Research Laboratories The Compressive Strengths of Some Technical Metals Between and 3 aook C. A. Swenson Mas sachusetts Institute of Technology Low Temperature Kiloatmosphere Apparatus.... M. D. Fiske and L. B. Nesbitt General Electric Research Laboratory Xl G-5 G-6 Thermal Conductivity of Solids at Low Temperatures. R. L. Powell and D. O. Coffin Accurate Measurement of Certain Physical Properties Down to 20 0 K H. L. Johnston, R. W. Powers, H. W. Altman, T. Rubin and R. W. Mattox. Ohio State University G-7 A New Criterion for Superconductivity in Metals G. Groetzinger, D. Kahn and P. Schwed National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Special Cryogenic Equipment and Processes H-l H-2 The Cryostat in Industrial Research G. Bedjai, C. L. Volff and L. N. Canjar Spaco, Inc. The Gas Phase Heterogeneous Catalysis of the Ortho-Parahydrogen Conversion at Low Temperatures Under Pressure. D. S. Chapin, C. M. Cunningham and H. L. Johnston Ohio State University H-3 The Liquid Phase Heterogeneous Catalysis of the Ortho-Parahydrogen Conversion at Low Temperatures Under Pressure. 283 C. M. Cunningham, D. S. Chapin and H. L. Johnston Ohio State University xii H-4 H-5 H-6 Ortho-Parahydrogen Conversion Studies P. L. Barrick. D. H. Weitzel and T. W. Connolly Safety Engineering as Applied to the Handling of Liquefied Atmospheric Gases.... G. H. Zenner Linde Air Products Company Vibration Testing of Airborne Cryogenic Equipment.... P. R. Weaver. W. E. Smull and E. H. Brown C EL National Bureau of Standards H-7 Thermal Oscillations in Low Temperature Apparatus 302 J. R. Clement and J. Gaffney United States Naval Res earch Laboratory Cryogenic Processes J-l J-2 Theory Versus Practice in Low Ternperature Enginee ring M. A. Dubs Linde Air Products Company Freon Cascade Refrigerator for Liquid Air Plant Precooler W. Ball Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory xiii J-3 J-4 J -5 J -6 Mobile Liquid Hydrogen Plant H. L. Johnston, C. B. Hood, Jr., H. W. Altman, J. G. Pierce and C. W. Weisend Herrick L. Johnston, Inc. Performanc~ of NBS Hydrogen Liquefier Plant.... V. J. Johnson and W. A. Wilson Manufacture, Liquefaction and Distribution of Dry Ice and Liquid Carbon Dioxide F. C. Seefeldt Liquid Carbonic Corporation The Effect of Some Variables in Low Temperature Processes W. J. Dougherty Air Products, Inc AUTHOR INDEX LIST OF DELEGATES xiv
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