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Agenda Item 5h CX/FA 14/46/15 January PDF

E Agenda Item 5h CX/FA 14/46/15 January 2014 AUSTRALIA JOINT FAO/WHO FOOD STANDARDS PROGRAMME CODEX COMMITTEE ON FOOD ADDITIVES Forty-Sixth Session Hong Kong, China, March 2014 PROPOSALS FOR NEW
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E Agenda Item 5h CX/FA 14/46/15 January 2014 AUSTRALIA JOINT FAO/WHO FOOD STANDARDS PROGRAMME CODEX COMMITTEE ON FOOD ADDITIVES Forty-Sixth Session Hong Kong, China, March 2014 PROPOSALS FOR NEW AND/OR REVISION OF FOOD ADDITIVE PROVISIONS (REPLIES TO CL 2013/8-FA PART B, POINT 5) Comments of Australia, Chile, Japan, Thailand, ELC and OIV In regards to Part B, Point 5 of CL 2013/8-FA Australia wishes to submit the following proposals for new additive provisions and/or revision of food additive provisions of the GSFA in accordance with the Procedure for Consideration of the Entry and Review of Food Additive Provisions in the General Standard for Food Additives (Procedural Manual of the Codex Alimentarius Commission). These additives are proposed for use in food category Grape wines and its sub-categories. The following additives are proposed for consideration: 1. Erythorbic acid (INS 315) Australia: permits the use of Erythorbic acid Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code - GMP. To prevent oxidation of colour and flavour components of juice and wine. Chemically it acts in a similar manner to ascorbic acid and is traditionally used as an ascorbic acid replacement. Also approvals for use in the USA and EU. JECFA evaluation ADI not specified. 2. Sodium Erythorbate (INS 316) Australia: permits the use of Sodium Erythorbate Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code - GMP. To prevent oxidation of colour and flavour components of juice and wine. Chemically it acts in a similar manner to ascorbic acid and is traditionally used as an ascorbic acid replacement. Also approvals for use in the USA and EU. JECFA evaluation ADI not specified. 3. Sodium ascorbate (INS 301) Australia permits the use of Sodium ascorbate Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code - GMP. To prevent oxidation of colour and flavour components of juice and wine. Evaluated by JECFA 1981 ADI not specified Group ADI for ascorbic acid and its sodium, potassium and calcium salts. Also permitted in the USA and New Zealand. 4. Calcium ascorbate (INS 302) Australia permits the use of Calcium ascorbate Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code - GMP. CX/FA 14/46/15 2 To prevent oxidation of colour and flavour components of juice and wine. Evaluated by JECFA 1981 ADI not specified Group ADI for ascorbic acid and its sodium, potassium and calcium salts. Also permitted in the USA and New Zealand. 5. Calcium phosphates (INS 341) Australia permits the use of Calcium phosphates Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code - GMP. Also approved for use in the USA and New Zealand. JECFA evaluation Maximum tolerable daily intakes for phosphates, diphosphates and polyphosphates 6. Ammonium phosphates INS 342) Australia permits the use of Ammonia phosphates Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code - GMP. Diammonium phosphate (DAP) is primarily used as a yeast fermentation aid, but ammonium phosphates can also be used as an acidity regulator. Evaluated by JECFA Group MTDI for phosphorus from all sources expressed as P was developed. The information required in the Consideration of the Entry and Review of Food Additive Provisions in the General Standard for Food Additives is below. ERYTHORBIC ACID JECFA Specifications available at: m1.pdf A summary of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) safety evaluation of the food additive erythorbic acid is available at The food categories or sub-categories in which the additive is intended to be used Erythorbic acid is proposed for use in food category Grape wines and its sub-categories. Technological need/justification for the additive Oxidation, whether chemical or enzyme-induced, is a persistent problem throughout winemaking, which results from exposure of must, juice or wine to oxygen under certain conditions. Oxygen may be introduced to must, juice or wine at several production stages: crushing, fermentation, maturation and bottling/packaging. Immediately following harvesting and the crushing of berries, oxidation is primarily enzyme induced and is thought to be more rapid than non-enzymatic oxidation which predominates after fermentation. The enzymes (oxidases) primarily responsible for oxidation are tyrosinase and laccase, both present in the grape berry. The oxidases catalyse the transfer of oxygen to phenolic compounds in the juice; the grape-derived phenolic compounds are responsible for the characteristic aroma, colour and flavour of the wine. The chemical oxidation of wine is initiated by the reaction of phenolic compounds with dissolved. The oxidation of phenolic compounds induces colour changes in the must and wine, and the formation of acrid and bitter substances; other aroma compounds in juice and wine are also oxidized. The flavour, aroma and colour of the must, juice and wine are permanently impaired such that oxidation is a problem that should be prevented. Ascorbic acid (AA) has been used as an antioxidant in wine for many years (as well as in other food stuffs). It can be added as its naturally occurring form L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) or as the optical isomer erythorbic acid. Its main roles are to prevent oxidative browning and pinking and to add freshness to a wines profile. Erythorbic acid is an optical isomer of ascorbic acid (it differs in the organisation of the -OH and H on the first carbon in the aliphatic chain after heterocyclic ring). It was traditionally used as an ascorbic acid replacement (i.e. to add freshness and as an antioxidant) in wine for cost reasons. Chemically in most ways it acts in a manner similar to ascorbic acid except it has no vitamin C effect. Some current research in model wine systems suggests that samples with erythorbic acid suffered less oxidative browning however the erythorbic acid itself was consumed more quickly than ascorbic acid in equivalent CX/FA 14/46/15 3 systems. It is difficult to determine if a similar effect will be apparent in the much more complex situation of real wines other than to say that there may be some differences in duration of their effectiveness. In general the same regulations and conditions with regards to ascorbic acid apply, along with the warnings that sufficient SO2 be available when used to ensure that the by-products of its antioxidant function do not lead to browning and organoleptic deterioration. The use of erythorbic acid in winemaking as a food additive is justified according to the requirements of 3.2 of the General Principles of the GSFA; specifically to enhance the keeping quality or stability of a food or to improve its organoleptic properties, provided that this does not change the nature, substance or quality of the food so as to deceive the consumer. Maximum use levels for the food additive in the specified food categories: Erythorbic acid has no Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI); therefore a level of GMP is appropriate. No toxicological problems exist for Erythorbic Acid. No consumer problems exist from the use of this additive and it is approved for use or sale in all major wine producing countries in the world. SODIUM ERYTHORBATE Identity of the food additive Sodium erythorbate has been evaluated by JECFA and has an International Numbering System (INS) number 316 and a CAS Sodium erythorbate has been assigned a functional class of antioxidant. Synonyms include: Sodium erythorbate was evaluated at the 37th JECFA (1990) and an ADI 'not specified' was established. Sodium erythorbate (Sodium isoascorbate) is a food additive that is included in Table 3, of the GSFA and as such may be used in the foods in annex 2 under the conditions of good manufacturing practices (GMP) as outlined in the Preamble of the Codex GSFA The JECFA specification for Sodium erythorbate was prepared at the 37th JECFA (1990), published in FNP 52 (1992) superseding specifications prepared at the 17th JECFA (1973), and published in FNP 4 (1978). Metals and arsenic specifications revised at the 61 st JECFA (2003) and are provided in annex 2. A summary of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) safety evaluation of the food additive sodium erythorbate is available at: The food categories or sub-categories in which the additive is intended to be used Erythorbic acid is proposed for use in food category Grape wines and its sub-categories. Technological need/justification for the additive Oxidation, whether chemical or enzyme-induced, is a persistent problem throughout winemaking, which results from exposure of must, juice or wine to oxygen under certain conditions. Oxygen may be introduced to must, juice or wine at several production stages: crushing, fermentation, maturation and bottling/packaging. Immediately following harvesting and the crushing of berries, oxidation is primarily enzyme induced and is thought to be more rapid than non-enzymatic oxidation which predominates after fermentation. The enzymes (oxidases) primarily responsible for oxidation are tyrosinase and laccase, both present in the grape berry. The oxidases catalyse the transfer of oxygen to phenolic compounds in the juice; the grape-derived phenolic compounds are responsible for the characteristic aroma, colour and flavour of the wine. The chemical oxidation of wine is initiated by the reaction of phenolic compounds with dissolved. The oxidation of phenolic compounds induces colour changes in the must and wine, and the formation of acrid and bitter substances; other aroma compounds in juice and wine are also oxidized. The flavour, aroma and colour of the must, juice and wine are permanently impaired such that oxidation is a problem that should be prevented. Ascorbic acid (AA) has been used as an antioxidant in wine for many years (as well as in other food stuffs). It can be added as its naturally occurring form L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) or as the optical isomer erythorbic acid. Its main roles are to prevent oxidative browning and pinking and to add freshness to a wines profile. Erythorbic acid is an optical isomer of ascorbic acid (it differs in the organisation of the -OH and H on the first carbon in the aliphatic chain after heterocyclic ring). It was traditionally used as an ascorbic acid replacement (i.e. to add freshness and as an antioxidant) in wine for cost reasons. CX/FA 14/46/15 4 Chemically in most ways it acts in a manner similar to ascorbic acid except it has no vitamin C effect. Some current research in model wine systems suggests that samples with erythorbic acid suffered less oxidative browning however the erythorbic acid itself was consumed more quickly than ascorbic acid in equivalent systems. It is difficult to determine if a similar effect will be apparent in the much more complex situation of real wines other than to say that there may be some differences in duration of their effectiveness. In general the same regulations and conditions with regards to ascorbic acid apply, along with the warnings that sufficient SO2 be available when used to ensure that the by-products of its antioxidant function do not lead to browning and organoleptic deterioration. The use of sodium erythorbate in winemaking as a food additive is justified according to the requirements of 3.2 of the General Principles of the GSFA; specifically to enhance the keeping quality or stability of a food or to improve its organoleptic properties, provided that this does not change the nature, substance or quality of the food so as to deceive the consumer. Maximum use levels for the food additive in the specified food categories: Sodium erythorbate acid has no Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI); therefore a level of GMP is appropriate. No toxicological problems exist for Sodium erythorbate. No consumer problems exist from the use of this additive and it is app roved for use or sale in all major wine producing countries in the world SODIUM ASCORBATE (INS 301) A summary of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) safety evaluation of the food additive sodium ascorbate can be found at: The food categories or sub-categories in which the additive is intended to be used Sodium ascorbate is proposed for use in food category Grape wines and its sub-categories. Technological need/justification for the additive Oxidation, whether chemical or enzyme-induced, is a persistent problem throughout winemaking, which results from exposure of must, juice or wine to oxygen under certain conditions. Oxygen may be introduced to must, juice or wine at several production stages: crushing, fermentation, maturation and bottling/packaging. Immediately following harvesting and the crushing of berries, oxidation is primarily enzyme induced and is thought to be more rapid than non-enzymatic oxidation which predominates after fermentation. The enzymes (oxidases) primarily responsible for oxidation are tyrosinase and laccase, both present in the grape berry. The oxidases catalyse the transfer of oxygen to phenolic compounds in the juice; the grape-derived phenolic compounds are responsible for the characteristic aroma, colour and flavour of the wine. The chemical oxidation of wine is initiated by the reaction of phenolic compounds with dissolved. The oxidation of phenolic compounds induces colour changes in the must and wine, and the formation of acrid and bitter substances; other aroma compounds in juice and wine are also oxidized.the flavour, aroma and colour of the must, juice and wine are permanently impaired such that oxidation is a problem that should be prevented. Ascorbic acid (and its calcium and sodium salts) has been used as an antioxidant in wine for many years (as well as in other food stuffs). Its main roles are to prevent oxidative browning and pinking and to add freshness to a wines profile. As a rough guide each 1 ppm of dissolved oxygen will require 6 ppm of Ascorbic acid which in turn will need 4 ppm of SO2 to scavenge reaction products. However it needs to be remembered that the levels and effectiveness of both the SO2 and ascorbic acid will be influenced by the phenolics in the wine. Typical levels of 100ppm ascorbic and 30ppm free SO2 would appear to offer beneficial effects. The use of sodium ascorbate in winemaking as a food additive is justified according to the requirements of 3.2 of the General Principles of the GSFA; specifically to enhance the keeping quality or stability of a food or to improve its organoleptic properties, provided that this does not change the nature, substance or quality of the food so as to deceive the consumer. Maximum use levels for the food additive in the specified food categories: Sodium ascorbate has no Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI); therefore a level of GMP is appropriate. No toxicological problems exist for Sodium ascorbate. No consumer problems exist from the use of this additive and it is approved for use or sale around the world. CX/FA 14/46/15 5 CALCIUM ASCORBATE (INS 302) JECFA Specifications of calcium ascorbate are available at: The food categories or sub-categories in which the additive is intended to be used Calcium ascorbate is proposed for use in food category Grape wines and its sub-categories. Technological need/justification for the additive Oxidation, whether chemical or enzyme-induced, is a persistent problem throughout winemaking, which results from exposure of must, juice or wine to oxygen under certain conditions. Oxygen may be introduced to must, juice or wine at several production stages: crushing, fermentation, maturation and bottling/packaging. Immediately following harvesting and the crushing of berries, oxidation is primarily enzyme induced and is thought to be more rapid than non-enzymatic oxidation which predominates after fermentation. The enzymes (oxidases) primarily responsible for oxidation are tyrosinase and laccase, both present in the grape berry. The oxidases catalyse the transfer of oxygen to phenolic compounds in the juice; the grape-derived phenolic compounds are responsible for the characteristic aroma, colour and flavour of the wine. The chemical oxidation of wine is initiated by the reaction of phenolic compounds with dissolved. The oxidation of phenolic compounds induces colour changes in the must and wine, and the formation of acrid and bitter substances; other aroma compounds in juice and wine are also oxidized. The flavour, aroma and colour of the must, juice and wine are permanently impaired such that oxidation is a problem that should be prevented. Ascorbic acid (and its calcium and sodium salts) has been used as an antioxidant in wine for many years (as well as in other food stuffs). Its main roles are to prevent oxidative browning and pinking and to add freshness to a wines profile. As a rough guide each 1 ppm of dissolved oxygen will require 6 ppm of Ascorbic acid which in turn will need 4 ppm of SO2 to scavenge reaction products. However it needs to be remembered that the levels and effectiveness of both the SO2 and ascorbic acid will be influenced by the phenolics in the wine. Typical levels of 100ppm ascorbic and 30ppm free SO2 would appear to offer beneficial effects. The use of calcium ascorbate in winemaking as a food additive is justified according to the requirements of 3.2 of the General Principles of the GSFA; specifically to enhance the keeping quality or stability of a food or to improve its organoleptic properties, provided that this does not change the nature, substance or quality of the food so as to deceive the consumer. Maximum use levels for the food additive in the specified food categories: Calcium ascorbate has no Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI); therefore a level of GMP is appropriate. No toxicological problems exist for Calcium ascorbate. No consumer problems exist from the use of this additive and it is approved for use or sale around the world AMMONIUM PHOSPHATES Ammonium phosphates (INS 342) including Diammonium phosphate (DAP)) (INS 342ii) Identity of the food additive INS: Chemical names: Synonyms: Functional class: Latest evaluation: Tolerable Intake: 342ii DIAMMONIUM HYDROGEN ORTHOPHOSPHATE; DIAMMONIUMHYDROGEN TETRAOXO PHOSPHATE; DIAMMONIUM HYDROGENPHOSPHATE DIBASIC AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE; DIAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE ACIDITY REGULATOR; DOUGH CONDITIONER; RAISING AGENT; YEASTFOOD 1982 MTDI 70 mg/kg b.w (as P) Comments: Group MTDI for phosphorus from all sources, expressed as P Report: TRS 683-JECFA 26/25 Specificatio ns: COMPENDIUM ADDENDUM 10/FNP 52 Add.10/34 (METALS LIMITS) (2002) CX/FA 14/46/15 6 Tox monograph: Previous status: A summary of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) safety evaluation of the food additive phosphoric acid and phosphate salts are available at: The food categories or sub-categories in which the additive is intended to be used Ammonium phosphate is proposed for use in food category Grape wines and its sub-categories. Technological need/justification for the additive Ammonium phosphates can be used as an acidity regulator, but their prime function on wine is as a yeast adjunct in the GSFA Ammonium belong to the additive group Phosphates with the functional classes of Acidity regulator and Flour treatment agent. Because the viticulturist attempts to balance a long list of priorities in order to produce fruit to specification, most attention will focus on those factors that cannot be modified once the fruit has been harvested. Therefore, yeast nutrients, especially nitrogen, might not be optimised for fermentation and may need to be added in the winery. At the time of inoculation, yeast is subjected to a range of stresses to which the cell must adapt in order to exploit its new environment. Some of the known stresses are osmotic pressure, oxidative conditions, sulphite toxicity and temperature shock. A common practice amongst winemakers is to make a standard addition of diammonium phosphate (DAP) to the juice or must ( mg/L) at inoculation. In practice, the maximum addition of DAP is limited by the concomitant concentration of soluble phosphate remaining in the wine, which is set at 400mg P/L (Australian and New
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