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# Arrays and Array Operations

CSE123 Lecture 5 Arrays and Array Operations
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Title: Arrays and Array Operations 1 Lecture 5 CSE123
• Arrays and Array Operations
• 2 Definitions
• Scalars Variables that represent single numbers. Note that complex numbers are also scalars, even though they have two components.
• Arrays Variables that represent more than one number. Each number is called an element of the array. Array operations allow operating on multiple numbers at once.
• Row and Column Arrays (Vector) A row of numbers (called a row vector) or a column of numbers(called a column vector).
• Two-Dimensional Arrays (Matrix) A two-dimensional table of numbers, called a matrix.
• 3 Vector Creation by Explicit List
• A vector in Matlab can be created by an explicit list, starting with a left bracket, entering the values separated by spaces (or commas) and closing the vector with a right bracket.
• gtgtx0 .1pi .2pi .3pi .4pi .5pi .6pi .7pi .8pi .9pi pi gtgtysin(x) gtgty Columns 1 through 7 0 0.3090 0.5878 0.8090 0.9511 1.0000 0.9511 Columns 8 through 11 0.8090 0.5878 0.3090 0.0000 4 Vector Addressing / indexation
• A vector element is addressed in Matlab with an integer index (also called a subscript) enclosed in parentheses.
• gtgt x(3) ans 0.6283 gtgt y(5) ans 0.9511 Colon notation Addresses a block of elements. The format is (startincrementend) Note start, increment and end must be positive integer numbers. If the increment is to be 1, a shortened form of the notation may be used (startend) gtgt x(15) ans 0 0.3142 0.6283 0.9425 1.2566 gtgt x(7end) ans 1.8850 2.1991 2.5133 2.8274 3.1416 gtgt y(3-11) ans 0.5878 0.3090 gtgt y(8 2 9 1) ans 0.8090 0.3090 0.5878 0 5 Vector Creation Alternatives
• Combining A vector can also be defined using another vector that has already been defined.
• gtgt B 1.5, 3.1 gtgt S 3.0 B S 3.0000 1.5000 3.1000
• Changing Values can be changed by referencing a specific address
• gtgt S(2) -1.0 gtgt S S 3.0000 -1.0000 3.1000
• gtgt S(7) 8.5 gtgt S S 3.0000 -1.0000 3.1000 5.5000 0 0 8.5000 gtgt S(4) 5.5 gtgt S S 3.0000 -1.0000 3.1000 5.5000 6 Vector Creation Alternatives
• Colon notation
• (startincrementend)
• where start, increment, and end can now be floating point numbers.
• x(00.11)pi x Columns 1 through 7 0 0.3142 0.6283 0.9425 1.2566 1.5708 1.8850 Columns 8 through 11 2.1991 2.5133 2.8274 3.1416
• linspace generates a vector of uniformly incremented values, but instead of specifying the increment, the number of values desired is specified. The form
• linspace(start,end,number)
• The increment is computed internally, having the value 7 Vector Creation Alternatives gtgt xlinspace(0,pi,11) x Columns 1 through 7 0 0.3142 0.6283 0.9425 1.2566 1.5708 1.8850 Columns 8 through 11 2.1991 2.5133 2.8274 3.1416 logspace(start_exponent,end_exponent,number) To create a vector starting at 100 1,ending at 102 100 and having 11 values gtgt logspace(0,2,11) ans Columns 1 through 7 1.0000 1.5849 2.5119 3.9811 6.3096 10.0000 15.8489 Columns 8 through 11 25.1189 39.8107 63.0957 100.0000 8 Vector Length length(x) To determine the length of a vector array. gtgt x 0 1 2 3 4 5 x 0 1 2 3 4 5 gtgt length(x) ans 6 9 Vector Orientation A column vector, having one column and multiple rows, can be created by specifying it element by element, separating element values with semicolons The transpose operator () is used to transpose a row vector into a column vector gtgt a 15 a 1 2 3 4 5 gtgt c a c 1 2 3 4 5 gtgt c 12345 c 1 2 3 4 5 10 Matrix arrays in Matlab Vector Use square brackets. Separate elements on the same row with spaces or commas. Matrix Use semi-colon to go to the next row. A 1 2 3 A 1, 2, 3 B 1 2 3 4 C 5 6 7 11 Matrix Arrays
• A matrix array is 2D, having both multiple rows and multiple columns.
• Creation of 2D arrays follows that of row and column vectors
• Begin with end with
• Spaces or commas are used to separate elements in a row.
• A semicolon or Enter is used to separate rows.
• gtgt h 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 h 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 gtgt k 1 23 4 5 ??? Number of elements in each row must be the same. gtgtf 1 2 3 4 5 6 f 1 2 3 4 5 6 gtgt g f g 1 4 2 5 3 6 12 Special matrix creation Manipulations and Combinations A 10 10 10 10 Matrix full of 10 gtgt A10ones(2,2) Matrix of random numbers between 0 and 10 gtgt B10rand(2,2) B 4.5647 8.2141 0.1850 4.4470 Matrix of random numbers between -1 and 0 gtgt C -rand(2,2) C -0.4103 -0.0579 -0.8936 -0.3529 Matrix of random numbers between -1 and 1 gtgt C2rand(2,2) ones(2,2) gtgt C2rand(2,2) -1 C -0.6475 0.8709 -0.1886 0.8338 13 Special matrix creation Concatenation Combine two (or more) matrices into one Notation C A, B gtgt Aones(2,2) gtgt Bzeros(2,2) gtgtCA , B gtgtDA B D 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 C 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 14 Matrix indexation Obtain a single value from a matrix Ex want to know a21 Notation A(2,1) gtgt A1 2 3 3 2 1 1 2 4 gtgt A(2,1) ans 3 gtgt A(3,2) ans 2 15 Matrix indexation Obtain more than one value from a matrix Ex X110 Notation A(13,23) Colon defines a range 1 to 10 Colon can also be used as a wildcard gtgt A1 2 3 3 2 1 1 2 4 gtgt BA(13,23) B 2 3 2 1 2 4 gtgt CA(2,) C 3 2 1 16 Matrix size Command Description s size(A) For an m x n matrix A, returns the two-element row vector s m, n containing the number of rows and columns in the matrix. r,c size(A) r,c size(A) Returns two scalars r and c containing the number of rows and columns in A, respectively. r size(A,1) Returns the number of rows in A in the variable r. c size(A,2) Returns the number of columns in A in the variable c. 17 Matrix size gtgt whos Name Size Bytes Class A 2x3 48 double array ans 1x1 8 double array c 1x1 8 double array r 1x1 8 double array s 1x2 16 double array gtgt A 1 2 3 4 5 6 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 gtgt s size(A) s 2 3 gtgt r,c size(A) r 2 c 3 18 Special matrix creation zeros(M,N) Matrix of zeros ones(M,N) Matrix of ones eye(M,N) Matrix of ones on the diagonal rand(M,N) Matrix of random numbers between 0 and 1 gtgt Azeros(2,3) A 0 0 0 0 0 0 gtgt Bones(2,2) B 1 1 1 1 gtgt Ceye(2,2) C 1 0 0 1 gtgt Drand(3,2) D 0.9501 0.4860 0.2311 0.8913 0.6068 0.7621 19 Operations on vectors and matrices in Matlab Math Matlab Addition/subtraction AB A-B Multiplication/ division (element by element) A.B A./B Multiplication(Matrix Algebra) AB Transpose AT A Inverse A-1 inv(A) Determinant A det(A) 20 Array Operations
• Scalar-Array Mathematics
• Addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of an array by a scalar simply apply the operation to all elements of the array.
• gtgt f 1 2 3 4 5 6 f 1 2 3 4 5 6 gtgt g 2f -1 g 1 3 5 7 9 11 21 Array Operations
• Element-by-Element Array-Array Mathematics
• When two arrays have the same dimensions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division apply on an element-by-element basis.
• Operation Algebraic Form Matlab Addition a b a b Subtraction a - b a - b Multiplication a x b a . b Division a / b a ./ b Exponentiation ab a . b 22 Array Operations MATRIX Addition (substraction) 23 Array Operations Examples Addition Subtraction 2 4 6 0 0 0 10 8 12 0 0 0 14 18 16 0 0 0 24 Array Operations
• Element-by-Element Array-Array Mathematics
• gtgt A 2 5 6 gtgt B 2 3 5 gtgt C A.B C 4 15 30 gtgt D A./B D 1.0000 1.6667 1.2000 gtgt E A.B E 4 125 7776 gtgt F 3.0.A F 9 243 729 25 Array Operations MATRIX Multiplication (element by element) 26 Array Operations Examples Multiplication Division (element by element) 1 4 9 1 1 1 16 25 36 1 1 1 49 64 81 1 1 1 27 Array Operations Matrix Multiplication
• The matrix multiplication of m x n matrix A and nxp matrix B yields m x p matrix C, denoted by
• C AB
• Element cij is the inner product of row i of A and column j of B
• Note that AB ? BA 28 Array Operations Matrix Multiplication Cell 1-1 29 Array Operations Example Matrix Multiplication 16 9 11 12 11 13 12 10 14 30 Array Operations Solving systems of linear equations Example 3 equations and 3 unknown 1x 6y 7z 0 2x 5y 8z 1 3x 4y 5z 2 Can be easily solved by hand, but what can we do if it we have 10 or 100 equations? 31 Array Operations Solving systems of linear equations 1x 6y 7z 0 2x 5y 8z 1 3x 4y 5z 2 32 Array Operations Solving systems of linear equations A x S B A x S B A-1 x A-1 x (A-1 x A) x S A-1 x B I x S A-1 x B S A-1 x B 33 Array Operations Solving systems of linear equations The previous set of equations can be expressed in the following vector-matrix form A x S B X 1x 6y 7z 0 2x 5y 8z 1 3x 4y 5z 2 34 Array Operations Matrix Determinant
• The determinant of a square matrix is a very useful value for finding if a system of equations has a solution or not.
• If it is equal to zero, there is no solution.
• Notation Determinant of A A or det(A) det(M) m11 m22 m21 m12 IMPORTANT the determinant of a matrix is a scalar 35 Array Operations Matrix Inverse
• The inverse of a matrix is really important concept, for matrix algebra
• Calculating a matrix inverse is very tedious for matrices bigger than 2x2. We will do that numerically with Matlab.
• Notation inverse of A A-1 or inv(A) Formula for a 2x2 matrix M-1 IMPORTANT the inverse of a matrix is a matrix 36 Array Operations Matrices properties Property of inverse A x A-1 I and A-1 x A I Property of identity matrix I x A A and A x I A 37 Solving systems of equations in Matlab x 6y 7z 0 2x 5y 8z 1 3x 4y 5z 2 In Matlab gtgt A 1 6 7 2 5 8 3 4 5 gtgt B012 gtgt Sinv(A)B Verification gtgt det(A) ans 28 gtgt S 0.8571 -0.1429 0 38 Solving systems of equations in Matlab x 6y 7z 0 2x 5y 8z 1 3x 4y 9z 2 In Matlab gtgt A 1 6 7 2 5 8 3 4 5 gtgt B012 gtgt Sinv(A)B Verification gtgt det(A) ans 0 Warning Matrix is singular to working precision. gtgt S NaN NaN NaN NO Solution!!!!! 39 Applications in mechanical engineering Find the value of the forces F1and F2 40 Applications in mechanical engineering Projections on the X axis F1 cos(60) F2 cos(80) 7 cos(20) 5 cos(30) 0 41 Applications in mechanical engineering Projections on the Y axis F1 sin(60) - F2 sin(80) 7 sin(20) 5 sin(30) 0 42 Applications in mechanical engineering F1 cos(60) F2 cos(80) 7 cos(20) 5 cos(30) 0 F1 sin(60) - F2 sin(80) 7 sin(20) 5 sin(30) 0 F1 cos(60) F2 cos(80) 7 cos(20) 5 cos(30) F1 sin(60) - F2 sin(80) - 7 sin(20) 5 sin(30) In Matlab, sin and cos use radians, not degree In Matlab gtgt CFpi/180 gtgt Acos(60CF), cos(80CF) sin(60CF), sin(80CF) gtgt B7cos(20CF)5cos(30CF) -7sin(20CF)5sin (30CF) gtgt F inv(A)B or (A\B) Solution F1 16.7406 N F2 14.6139 N F 16.7406 14.6139

## subtraction

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