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Available online at ScienceDirect. Procedia Materials Science 6 (2014 )

Available online at ScienceDirect Procedia Materials Science 6 (2014 ) rd International Conference on Materials Processing and Characterisation (ICMPC 2014) Development
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Available online at ScienceDirect Procedia Materials Science 6 (2014 ) rd International Conference on Materials Processing and Characterisation (ICMPC 2014) Development of Aluminium Based Silicon Carbide Particulate Metal Matrix Composite for Spur Gear * P.B.Pawar 1, Abhay A. Utpat 2 1,2 Mechanical Engineering Department, SVERI s College of Engineering, Pandharpur,413304,MH(India) Abstract MMCs are made by dispersing a reinforcing material into a metal matrix. They are prepared by powder metallurgy and casting, although several technical challenges exist with casting technology. Achieving a homogeneous distribution of reinforcement within the matrix is one such challenge, and this affects directly on the properties and quality of composite. The aluminum alloy composite materials consist of high strength, high stiffness, more thermal stability, more corrosion and wear resistance, and more fatigue life. aluminum alloy materials found to be the best alternative with its unique capacity of designing the materials to give required properties. In this work a composite is developed by adding silicon carbide in Aluminum metal by mass ratio 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%. The composite is prepared by stir casting technique. Mechanical tests such as hardness test, microstructure test are conducted. It is proposed to use this material for power transmitting elements such as gears which are subjected to continuous loading. Finally modeling and finite element analysis of gear is done using CATIA and ANSYS In case of increased silicon carbide content, the hardness, and material toughness are enhanced. From the results it is concluded that composite material such as aluminum silicon carbide is one of the option as a material for power transmission gears Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. ( Selection Selection and and peer peer-review review under under responsibility responsibility of the of Gokaraju the Gokaraju Rangaraju Rangaraju Institute Institute of Engineering of Engineering and Technology and Technology (GRIET) (GRIET). Keywords: Metal Matrix composite; Stir casting; Al-SiC composite; spur gear Nomenclature m- module a- centre distance M t = Design Torque P=Power in Watts E = Equivalent young s modules Z 1 =Number of teeth on pinion (usually selected from 14 to 20 initially) α= Pressure angle Y = Form factor corresponding to Z 1 K c - load concentration factor (k) K d -dynamic load factor b = Design bending stress i=gear Ratio N 1 = Speed of pinion in rpm * Corresponding author. Tel.: Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ( Selection and peer review under responsibility of the Gokaraju Rangaraju Institute of Engineering and Technology (GRIET) doi: /j.mspro P.B. Pawar and Abhay A. Utpat / Procedia Materials Science 6 ( 2014 ) Introduction Aluminium alloy materials or simply composites are combinations of materials. They are made up of combining two or more materials in such a way that the resulting materials have certain design properties or improved properties. Aluminium Silicon carbide alloy composite materials are widely used for a many number of applications like engineering structures, industry and electronic applications, sporting goods and so on. The properties of aluminium metal matrix composite mostly depend on the processing method which is capable of producing good properties to comply the industry need. Al-SiC composites can be more easily produced by the stir casting technique due to its good cast ability and relatively inexpensive. Jeevan et al. [2013], Hashim et al. [1999], Neelima Devi et al. [2011], Yano et al.[2006] reported that the melt stirring method is economical, easy to apply and convenient for mass production. However, the problem encounter for this technique was low wettability and particle settling. To improve wettability and particle homogeneity during casting, various method have been used including coating or oxidizing the reinforcement particles, adding some surface active elements (magnesium and lithium) into the matrix, increasing the liquid temperature and stirring of molten matrix alloy for an adequate time period during incorporation. Study of wear properties of Al-SiC composite was carried out by Singla et al. [2009] He found that wear rate decreases linearly with increasing SiC content. Mechanical characterization of Al-SiC composite done in previous work by Behera et al. [2013], Wang et al [2008], Pathak et al. [2006] The hardness, impact strength, and material toughness were evaluated. The improved value of coefficient of thermal expansion for Aluminium composites is one of the reasons they are widely used in electronics industry as studied by Martin et al. [2011], Dunia Abdul Saheb[2011], Occhionero et al.[2010], Wang et al.[2006]. It has been proved by Abdullah et al. [2009] that particle reinforced aluminium matrix composites can improve considerably the strength and hardness of aluminium and its alloys. However, at the same time, the plasticity and ductility can substantially reduced. This will severely affect the safety and reliability of components fabricated from Aluminium matrix composites (AMCs).Mechanical characterization of Aluminium silicon carbide composite was carried out by Purohit et al.[2012] They conducted tensile strength experiments by varying mass fraction of SiC (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) with Aluminium. The maximum tensile strength has been obtained at 15% SiC ratio. They also studied Mechanical and Corrosion behavior of Aluminium Silicon Carbide alloys. Modeling and analysis of spur gear was carried by V.Siva Prasad et al. [2012], Chabra et al. [2012], Gulaxea et al. [2013], Shinde et al. [2012] for different Non metals. There are a number of national standards and design methods for Design of gears. 2. Preparation of Aluminium-Silicon Carbide Composite Casting is probably one of the most ancient processes of manufacturing metallic components. The metal matrix composite used in the present work is prepared by the stir casting method. For the preparation of the Aluminium silicon carbide composite by using stir casting mass basis ratio of 100:2.5, 100:5, 100:7.5, and 100:10 are taken. Fig. 1 illustrates the raw materials and samples of Aluminium Silicon Carbide material. Aluminium alloy in the form of ingots is used. The metal ingots are cleaned and melted to the desired super heating temperature of 750 o C in graphite crucibles. Fig.2 shows schematic set up for stir casting technique. A three-phase electrical resistance furnace with temperature controlling device is used for melting. For each melting g of alloy is used. The super heated molten metal is degassed at a temperature of 780 o C. SiC particulates, preheated to around 500 o C, are then added to the molten metal and stirred continuously by a mechanical stirrer at 720 o C. The stirring time is between 5 and 8 minutes. During stirring, Borax powder was added in small quantities to increase the wettability of SiC particles. 1152 P.B. Pawar and Abhay A. Utpat / Procedia Materials Science 6 ( 2014 ) Fig.1 Raw materials and Samples of Aluminium Silicon Carbide material The melt, with the reinforced particulates, is poured into the dried, coated, cylindrical permanent sand mould. The pouring temperature is maintained at 680 o C. The same molten metal and SiC particle mixture was poured into strip. The melt was allowed to solidify in the moulds. The mould has been prepared (Fig.3) for casting specimen for various mechanical tests. The sand mould is prepared approximately 10cm in diameter and 8cm to 10cm in height. Test specimen prepared for Hardness and microstructure are shown in Fig Motor 5. Particle injection chamber 2. Shaft 6. Insulation hard board 3. Molten aluminum 7. Furnace 4. Thermocouple 8. Graphite crucible Fig.2 Schematic set up for Stir casting [5] Fig.3 Sand mould prepared for making samples Fig.4 Test Specimens for Hardness and Microstructure test s P.B. Pawar and Abhay A. Utpat / Procedia Materials Science 6 ( 2014 ) Sample No. Table 1. Hardness values of Aluminium Specimen with Different SiC contents Hardness in BHN % SiC by weight Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Average Hardness in BHN 01 0% % % % % Hardness Test Fig 5 Graph of % SiC by wt Vs Brinell hardness number. Bulk hardness measurements are carried out on the base metal and composite samples by using the standard Brinel hardness test. The Brinel hardness measurements are carried out in order to investigate the influence of SiC particulate weight fractions on the matrix hardness. The applied load is 250N, and the indenter is a steel ball 5 mm in diameter. Hardness values obtained at various sections are given in table1 and Fig 5 shows increase in hardness with increasing SiC content. The hardness test is conducted on Automatic Optical Brinell Hardness Tester Model OPFB. (a) (b) 1154 P.B. Pawar and Abhay A. Utpat / Procedia Materials Science 6 ( 2014 ) (c) (d) Fig.6 Microstructure of Al-SiC Specimen for different % of SiC (a) 2.5% (b) 5% (c) 7.5% (d) 10% 2.2 Microstructure Test Metallographic samples are sectioned from the cylindrical casting. A 0.5 % HF solution was used to etch the samples wherever required. To observe the difference in distribution of SiC particles in the aluminium matrix, microstructure of samples were taken on Optical type Metallurgical Microscope (Make: Nikon, Range-X50 to X1500) All samples were developed by using stir casting technique by taking varying weight fractions of SiC particles. The various weight fractions were (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%) of SiC particles. Figures 6a,6b,6c and 6d shows micrograph s of samples containing, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%,10% SiC by weight respectively developed with the help of two-step mixing method of stir casting. It clearly shows the resulting homogeneous distribution of particles in the samples. The microstructures of various samples are shown in above figures. 3. Design of Spur Gear Lewis formula and Hertz Equation are derived to account for various factors which have influence on gear rating. Gear design engineering is not an exact science; it is a mixture of art and science. There are two theoretical formulas, which deal with the design of gear, one is the Hertz equation, which can be used to calculate the contact stresses and other is the Lewis formula, which can be used to calculate the bending stresses. a) Lewis Formula b) Hertz Theory Lewis Formula is used for designing gear. Some of the equations used in design of gear are mentioned here. a (i±1) P= m 1.26 where, b = Design bending stress which should be the minimum value. for 20 pressure angle. (1) m = =10(Initially assumed) 4. Design Calculations Gear pair is designed by using Lewis formula (i.e. for bending Strength) for transmitting 10kW power at 1440 rpm input speed. Following are the inputs taken for designing gear pair. Table 2. Input Parameters for Design of Spur Gear Parameter Value Input Power 10 kw Input speed 1440 rpm Gear material Aluminium silicon carbide composite (With hardness 60 BHN) Gear Ratio 1 Pressure angle 20º Number of teeth on driver (Z 1 ) 18 (Assumed initially for 20º involutes gears) (2) (3) P.B. Pawar and Abhay A. Utpat / Procedia Materials Science 6 ( 2014 ) Loading cycle and life 12 hrs/day, for 2100 days [3] Table 3 Geometric Details of Spur Gear Parameter Value Module (m) 5mm Addendum 5mm Dedendum 6.25mm Pressure angle (α) 20 Tooth thickness (t) 7.85mm Whole depth 11.25mm Face width (b) 27mm Fillet radius 2mm No of teeth (z) 18 Pitch circle diameter 90mm Tip circle diameter 100mm Root circle diameter 77.5mm Circular pitch 15.70mm 5. Modelling and Finite Element Analysis Finite element modeling is described as the representation of the geometric model in terms of a finite number of element and nodes. It is actually a numerical method employed for the solution of structures or a complex region defining a continuum. This is an alternative to analytical methods that are used for getting exact solution of analysis problems. The solution of general problem by finite element method always follows an orderly step-by-step process for analysis in ANSYS The loading conditions are assumed to be static. The element chosen is solid Brick 8 node 45. After gear design has done by using Lewis equation for bending strength next step will be modeling of gear and Finite Element Analysis. The Young s Modulus for composite is calculated theoretically using the formula mentioned by Chabra et al. [2012] Fig. 7a and Fig. 7b shows Stress and equivalent strain distribution on gear teeth. It can be clearly seen from these figures that maximum stress value is obtained at the tip of teeth, which is in conformation with assumption made in Lewis theory. (a) Fig.7 Analysis of Spur Gear Made from Al-SiC (a) Stress Distribution (b) (b) Equivalent Elastic strain 6. Conclusion Silicon carbide particle reinforced aluminium matrix composite (AMCs) were prepared by stir-casting with different particle weight fraction (2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%) the following conclusions can be drawn: 1156 P.B. Pawar and Abhay A. Utpat / Procedia Materials Science 6 ( 2014 ) Hardness of Al-SiC is much better than the aluminum metal. In case of increased silicon carbide content, the hardness, and material toughness are enhanced and highest value is obtained at 10% SiC content. More uniform distribution of SiC particles can be found if composite is prepared by powder metallurgy than stir casting; however stir casting is more economical. These composites can be used for making power transmitting elements such as gears, which are subjected to continuous loading. Stress distribution obtained in FEA analysis shows highest stress value at tip of the teeth. Acknowledgement Our thanks go to Devyani Alloys, Baramati for cooperation in preparing and testing of samples. References Behera Rabindra, S.Kayal, Mohanta N.R., G.Sutradhar, 2013 Study on Machinability of Aluminium Silicon Carbide Metal Matrix Composites Transactions of 61 st Indian Foundry Congress. Chabra Pankaj, Bhatia Amit, 2012 Design and Analysis of Composite Material Gear Box, International Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Vol.1, Issue1,pp Chawathe D.D.,2001 Handbook of Gear Technology, New Age International Publication, pp 26-89, , Devi Neelima, Mahesh.V, Selvaraj. N, 2011 Mechanical characterization of Aluminium silicon carbide composite, International Journal Of Applied Engineering Research, Volume 1,Issue 4,pp Dunia Abdul Saheb, 2011 Aluminium Silicon Carbide and Aluminium Graphite Particulate Composites, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, VOL. 6, Issue 10,pp Gulaxea Pratik, Awate N.P., 2013 Design, Modeling & Analysis of Gear Box for Material Handling Trolley: A Review, Mechanica Confab, Vol. 2, Issue1, pp Hashim J.,Looney L Hashmi M.S.J.,(1999), Metal Matrix Composites: Production by the Stir Casting Method, Journal of Material Processing and Technology, pp. 17. Jeevan V., Rao C.S.P., Sonraj N.,2013 Development of New Aluminium Matrix Composite Reinforced with Silicon Carbide, ISSN ,Vol.1, Issue 2,pp34-38 Martin I. Pech-Canul (2011). Aluminum Alloys for Al/SiC Composites, Recent Trends in Processing and Degradation of Aluminium Alloys, ISBN: , Available from: Occhionero Mark, Adams Richard, Kevin Fennessy, 2010 A New Substate For Electronics Packaging: Aluminium-Silicon Carbide (Alsic) Composites Proceedings of the Forth Annual Portable by Design Conference, Electronics Design, pp Pathak J.P., Singh J.K., Mohan S.,2006 Synthesis and Characterization of Aluminium-Silicon Carbide composite, Indian Journal of Engineering and Material Sciences, Vol.13, pp PSG Design Data Book, PSG College of Technology Coimbatore, 1966,pp Purohit Rajesh, Rana R. S., Verma C. S.,2012 Fabrication Of Al-Sic Composites Through Powder Metallurgy Process And Testing Of Properties, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA), Vol. 2, Issue 3,pp Shinde S.P., Nikam A.A., Mulla T.S., 2012, Static Analysis of Spur Gear Using Finite Element Analysis, Proceedings of Second International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering (SICETE) Dr.J.J.Magdum College of Engineering, Jaysingpur, pp Singla Manoj, Singh Lakhvir, Chawla Vikas, 2009 Study of Wear Properties of Al-SiC Composites, Journal of Minerals & Materials Characterization & Engineering, Vol. 8, No.10, pp V. Siva Prasad, Syed Altaf Hussain, V.Pandurangadu, K.Palani Kumar, 2012 Modeling and Analysis of Spur Gear for Sugarcane Juice Machine under Static Load Condition by Using FEA International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER), Vol.2, Issue.4, pp Wang Hailong, Zhnag Rui, Xing Hu, Chang-An Wang, Yong Huang,2008 Characterization of a powder metallurgy SiC/Cu Al composite journal of materials processing technology,pp43 48 Wang Tian-Chi, Tong-Xiang Fan, Di Zhang and Guo-Ding Zhang,2006 Thermal Expansions and Mechanical Properties of Al/C and Al/(SiC+C) Composites Based on Wood Templates Materials Transactions, Vol. 47, No. 10, pp Yano T., Kato S.,Iseki T.,2006 Interface in Aluminium- Silicon Carbide Composite, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, p Yusof Abdullah, Abdul Razak Daud, Roslinda Shamsudin, Mohd b. Harun, 2009 Flexural Strength And Fracture Studies Of Al-Si/Sic Composites, International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering (IJMME), Vol. 4, No. 2, pp
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