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FALL%20PROTECTION

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Title: FALL%20PROTECTION 1 FALL PROTECTION Bureau of Workers Comp PA Training for Health Safety (PATHS)
  • OSHA 29 CFR 1926 Subpart M
  • (1926.500-503)
  • OSHA 29 CFR 1910 Subparts D, F, I
  • (1910.23, 66, 67, 132)
  • 2 Importance of Fall Protection
  • Each year, approximately 14 percent of fatal workplace injuries are caused by falls (Source U.S. Dept. of Labor).
  • In construction, approximately 150-200 workers are killed annually due to falls (Source OSHA).
  • 3 Fall Protection Requirements
  • General Industry (OSHA 1910) must have in place if working at or above four (4) feet
  • Maritime (OSHA 1915) must have in place if working at or above five (5) feet
  • Construction (OSHA 1926) must have in place if working at or above six (6) feet
  • 4 Determination
  • Employer should determine if walking/working surfaces have structural strength and integrity to support employees safely.
  • Employer should verify employees are allowed to
  • work only on surfaces
  • having strength and
  • integrity.
  • Is this safe? Definitely not! 5 Competent Person
  • One who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions, which are unsanitary, hazardous or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.
  • 6 Qualified Person
  • One who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training and experience, has successfully demonstrated ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work or the project.
  • 7 Factors Affecting Total Fall Distance
  • Length of connecting means (i.e., lanyard length, use of carabineers, snap hooks, etc.)
  • Position and height of anchorage relative to work platform/area (always keep above head whenever possible)
  • Position of attachment and D-ring slide on full body harness
  • Deployment of shock absorber (max. 42)
  • Movement in lifeline
  • Initial position of worker before free fall occurs
  • 8 Types of Fall Protection Systems
  • Articulating manlifts provided with restraint systems and full body harness to anchor point below waist
  • Guardrails with toeboards
  • Personal fall arrest systems
  • Anchor points (rated at 5,000 lbs.)
  • Connectors (self-locking snap hooks)
  • Retractable lanyard
  • Full body harness
  • Restraint line-lanyard
  • Shock absorbing lanyard
  • Rope grabs
  • 9 Types of Fall Protection Systems
  • Engineered life lines
  • Warning lines
  • Safety nets
  • Safety monitor systems
  • 10 Recommended Locations for Fall Protection
  • All flat and low sloped roof locations when within 6 of roof edge or for repair/maintenance
  • All exterior and interior platforms, catwalks, towers/antennas, etc.
  • All exterior and interior ladders above 20 feet
  • All mezzanine and balcony edges
  • 11 Recommended Locations for Fall Protection
  • All open excavations/pits
  • All tasks requiring use of manlifts
  • Scaffolding erection 10 in height or greater
  • Tuck-pointing/chimney repair
  • Gymnasium (catwalks)
  • 12 Personal Fall Arrest Systems
  • Full body harness used
  • Should be inspected before each use by employee, looking for
  • ? Deteriorated areas
  • ? Excessive wear
  • ? Bent hooks/rings
  • ? Evidence of impact/damage
  • 13 Personal Fall Arrest Systems
  • Connectors should be inspected to ensure they are drop-forged, pressed, formed steel or equivalent material.
  • Connectors should have corrosion-resistant finish, and surfaces/edges should be smooth.
  • D-rings and snap hooks should have minimum tensile strength of 5,000 lbs. and should be proof tested to 3,600 lbs.
  • Only shock absorbing or retractable lanyards should be used (keeps impact forces to the body at a minimum).
  • 14 Personal Fall Arrest Systems
  • Nylon rope or nylon straps with locking snap hooks used for restraints.
  • Ensure unintentional disengagement of snap hooks cannot happen by either
  • Checking to see if snap hooks are correct size for place they are to be connected, or
  • Snap hooks are of the locking type.
  • 15 Personal Fall Arrest Systems
  • Snap hooks should not be engaged as follows
  • ? Directly to webbing, rope, wire rope
  • ? To each other
  • ? To D-ring that has another snap hook attached
  • ? To a horizontal lifeline
  • Maximum free-fall distance not to exceed 6 feet.
  • Consideration should be given to total fall distance.
  • 16 Calculating Total Fall Distance
  • Total length of shock absorbing lanyard
  • Height of person
  • Location distance of D-ring from work surface or platform
  • Always allow minimum of 6 feet clearance above ground, equipment, etc., at end of fall from fall-arrest point!
  • 17 Inspection of Fall Protection Systems
  • Inspect body harness before each use
  • Closely examine all nylon webbing for burn marks, tears, wear points, etc.
  • Ensure no torn, frayed, broken fibers, pulled stitches, frayed edges anywhere on harness.
  • Examine D-ring to ensure no pits, deterioration, cracks, excessive wear.
  • Ensure buckles are not deformed/cracked and operate correctly.
  • 18 Inspection of Fall Protection Systems
  • Body harness before each use
  • Ensure all grommets (if present) are secure and not deformed from fall/abuse.
  • Ensure harness has no additional punched holes.
  • Ensure all rivets are tight and not deformed.
  • Check tongue straps for excessive wear from repeated buckling.
  • 19 Inspection of Fall Protection Systems
  • Body harness
  • Annual inspection of harnesses should be completed by competent person.
  • Annual inspection should be documented.
  • Harnesses should be stored hanging in enclosed cabinet to protect from damage.
  • Harnesses involved in fall should be destroyed.
  • 20 Inspection of Fall Protection Systems
  • Lanyards/shock absorbing lanyards, before each use
  • Check lanyard material for burns, cuts, rips, abrasions, kinks, knots, broken stitches, excessive wear.
  • Ensure snaphooks are not distorted.
  • Check carabineer for excessive wear, distortion, lock operation.
  • Ensure all locking mechanisms seat lock properly.
  • 21 Inspection of Fall Protection Systems
  • Lanyards/shock absorbing lanyards, before each use
  • Once locked, locking mechanism should prevent hook from opening.
  • Visually inspect shock absorber for signs of damage.
  • Ensure points where lanyard attaches to snaphooks are free of defects.
  • 22 Inspection of Fall Protection Systems
  • Lanyards/shock absorbing lanyards
  • Should be inspected annually by competent person.
  • Annual inspection should be documented.
  • Store lanyards/shock absorbing lanyards hanging in enclosed cabinet to prevent damage.
  • Destroy all lanyards/shock absorbing lanyards involved in a fall.
  • 23 Inspection of Fall Protection Systems
  • Snaphooks, before each use
  • Look for hook and eye distortions.
  • Verify that there are no cracks, eye distortions, pitted surfaces.
  • Ensure keeper latch is not bent, distorted, obstructed.
  • Ensure keeper latch seats into nose without binding.
  • Ensure keeper spring securely closes keeper latch.
  • Test locking mechanism to verify its working properly.
  • 24 Inspection of Fall Protection Systems
  • Self-retracting lanyards, before each use
  • Visually inspect body to ensure no damage.
  • Make sure all back nuts or rivets are tight.
  • Make sure entire length of nylon strap is free from cuts, abrasions, burns, kinks, knots, etc.
  • Test unit by pulling sharply on lanyard to verify locking mechanism is working properly.
  • Return to manufacturer for annual inspection, if required by manufacturer.
  • 25 Inspection of Fall Protection Systems
  • Self-retracting lanyards
  • Monthly inspection should be conducted by competent person.
  • Service per manufacturers recommendations.
  • Inspect for proper function after every fall.
  • 26 Inspection of Fall Protection Systems
  • Tie-off adapters/anchorages
  • Inspect for integrity and attachment to solid surface.
  • Annual inspection should be done by competent person and documented.
  • Destroy and replace after fall.
  • 27 Inspection of Fall Protection Systems
  • Horizontal lifelines
  • Before each use, check for structural integrity of line and anchors.
  • Annual inspection should be completed by competent person and documented.
  • 28 Inspection of Fall Protection Systems
  • Guardrails
  • Temporary systems
  • Daily visual inspection by competent person.
  • Complete structural by competent person.
  • Permanent systems
  • Annual inspection by competent person.
  • Frequency of future inspections based on conditions/controls present.
  • 29 Storage Maintenance of Fall Protection Equipment
  • Never store in bottom of tool box, on ground or outside where exposed to elements.
  • Hang equipment in cool, dry place in a way so it retains its shape.
  • Always follow manufacturers recommendation for inspection.
  • Clean with mild, non-abrasive soap and hang to dry.
  • Never force dry allow to air dry.
  • Never use strong detergents for cleaning.
  • 30 Storage Maintenance of Fall Protection Equipment
  • Never store near excessive heat, chemicals, moisture or sunlight.
  • Never store in an area where exposure to fumes or corrosive elements may exist.
  • Avoid dirt and build-up on equipment.
  • Never use equipment for any other purpose other than personal fall arrest.
  • Once exposed to fall, remove equipment from service immediately.
  • 31 Engineered Lifeline
  • Lifeline systems must be designed and approved by an engineer or qualified person.
  • Lifeline systems must be engineered to have
  • Appropriate anchorages
  • Strength of line to hold X number of people
  • Line strength to aid in arrest of fall
  • Durability to hold fallen worker until rescused
  • 32 Warning Line System
  • Should be erected no less than 6 feet from edge of roof.
  • Use stationary posts made of wood or metal.
  • Should have wire or nylon rope and caution flags strung from post to post must withstand 16 pounds of force.
  • Entire perimeter of roof where work being performed must be guarded by warning line.
  • 33 Floor Wall Openings Holes(OSHA 29CFR1910.23)
  • Stairway Opening
  • Must be guarded by standard railing containing top rail, mid-rail, posts.
  • Height 42 from upper surface of top rail to floor/platform, etc.
  • Top rail should be smooth-surfaced.
  • Mid-rail should be halfway between top and floor/platform, etc.
  • Railing on all exposed sides, except entrance to stairway.
  • 34 Floor Openings Holes
  • Ladder-way opening or platform
  • Must be guarded with standard railing and toeboard.
  • Guarded on all exposed sides, except entrance to opening.
  • Entrance to have swinging gate or an offset to prevent direct access.
  • 35 Floor Openings Holes
  • Hatchway chute opening guarded by one of the following
  • Hinged floor opening cover of standard strength with standard railings.
  • Cover must be closed when not in use or exposed side guarded with removable railings.
  • Removable railing and toeboard on not more than two sides of opening.
  • Fixed standard railings with toeboards on all other exposed sides.
  • 36 Floor Openings Holes
  • Skylight opening/hole
  • Must be guarded by standard skylight screen or fixed standard railing on all exposed sides.
  • Pit and trapdoor opening (if infrequently used)
  • Must be guarded by standard strength and construction floor opening cover.
  • When cover not in place, must be constantly attended or protected on all exposed sides by removable standard railings.
  • 37 Floor Openings Holes
  • Manhole opening
  • Must be guarded by standard manhole cover.
  • Cover does not need to be hinged in place.
  • When cover not in place, manhole must be constantly attended or must be protected by removable standard railings.
  • Temporary floor opening
  • Must be guarded by standard railings or constantly attended.
  • 38 Wall Openings Holes
  • Wall opening with drop of more than 4 feet must be guarded by one of the following
  • Rail
  • Roller
  • Picket fence
  • Half door
  • Equivalent barrier
  • If exposure below to falling materials, must have removable toeboard or equivalent.
  • Grab handle must be provided on each side of opening.
  • 39 Wall Openings Holes
  • Chute openings with drop of 4 feet or more must be guarded by one of the following
  • Rail
  • Roller
  • Picket fence
  • Half door
  • Equivalent barrier
  • 40 Powered Platforms, Manlifts, Vehicle-Mounted Work Platforms
  • Employees on working platforms shall be protected by a personal fall arrest system.
  • System must meet requirements of OSHA 29 CFR 19 10.66, Appendix C, Section l.
  • 41 Vehicle Mounted Elevating Rotating Work Platforms Body harness should be worn and lanyard attached to boom or basket when working from an aerial lift. 42 Ramps, Runways, Other Walkways
  • Employees must be protected from falling by guardrail systems.
  • 43 Leading Edge/Roof
  • Employees who are constructing leading edges, working nearby or working on a roof must be protected against falls.
  • Protection can be provided by
  • guardrail systems
  • safety net systems
  • safety monitors
  • personal fall arrest system
  • 44 Flat Roof
  • Flat roofs greater than 50 feet wide with work performed 6 feet or greater from edge warning line safety monitor system can be used.
  • If roof flat and less than 50 feet wide competent person safety monitor may be used.
  • 45 Low Sloped Roof
  • Employees engaged in roofing activities on low sloped roof (i.e., slight pitch) with unprotected sides must be protected from falling.
  • Can be protected by any of the following
  • Guardrail systems, safety net systems, personal fall arrest system
  • Combination warning line guardrail system
  • Combination warning line safety net system
  • Combination warning line personal fall arrest
  • Combination warning line safety monitor
  • Safety monitor alone (roofs 50 in width only).
  • 46 Steep Roof
  • Employees working on a steep roof must be protected from falling.
  • Can be protected by
  • Guardrail systems with toeboards,
  • Safety net systems, or
  • Personal fall arrest systems.
  • 47 Controlled Access Zones - Construction
  • Work area designated and clearly marked in which certain types of work (e.g., overhand bricklaying) may take place without the use of conventional fall protection systems.
  • Used to keep out workers other than those authorized to enter work areas from which guardrails have been removed.
  • Where there are no guardrails, masons are the only workers allowed in controlled access zones.
  • 48 Controlled Access Zones - Construction
  • Controlled access zones, when created to limit entrance to areas where leading edge work and other operations are taking place, must be defined by a control line or any other means that restrict access.
  • Control lines shall consist of ropes, wires, tapes or equivalent materials and supporting stanchions, and each must be
  • Flagged or otherwise clearly marked at not more than 6-foot intervals with high-visibility material
  • 49 Controlled Access Zones - Construction
  • Control lines must also
  • Be rigged and supported so that the lowest point (including sag) is not less than 39 from the walking/working surface, and
  • Highest point is not more than 45 from walking/working surface (or more than 50 when overhand bricklaying operations are being performed)
  • 50 Controlled Access Zones - Construction
  • Control lines must also
  • Be strong enough to sustain stress of not less than 200 pounds.
  • Extend along the entire length of the unprotected or leading edge.
  • Shall be approximately parallel to the unprotected or leading edge.
  • Be connected on each side to a guardrail system or wall.
  • 51 Controlled Access Zones - Construction
  • When control lines are used, they shall be erected not less than 6 or more than 25 from the unprotected or leading edge (except when precast concrete members are being erected).
  • In the latter case, the control line is to be erected not less than 6 or more than 60 (or half the length of the member being erected, whichever is less) from the leading edge.
  • 52 Excavations
  • Employees should be protected from falling by
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