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Herbal remedeis for snake bites

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  • 2. Content • Introduction • Snake bites • Snake venom • Anti venom serum • Medicinal plants • Benefits of herbal remedies • Chemical activity • Conclusion • References
  • 3. Introduction Snakes are poikilothermic carnivorous reptiles. The families of venomous snakes are Atractaspididae, Elapidae, Hydrophidae and viperidae. In the world 3270 species, 500 highly venomous In Sri Lanka 96 species , 20 highly venomous (6 species are land snakes : highly venomous or deadly venomous)
  • 4. There are 6 species of land snakes in Sri Lanka that are considered to be highly venomous or deadly venomous: 1. The Sri Lankan cobra (Naja naja) 2. Common krait (Bungarus caeruleus) 3. Ceylon krait (Bungarus ceylonicus) 4. Russell’s viper (Daboia russelli) 5. Hump nosed viper (Hypnale spp.) 6. The saw scaled viper (Echis carinatus) The most common venomous snakebites across the country as a whole, are due to the hump-nosed vipers
  • 5. Snake bites Worldwide, it is estimated that more than 5 million people per year are bitten by snakes, out of which approximately 100 000 develop severe squeal. (international ayurvedic medical journal 2016 July)
  • 6. In Sri Lanka, there could be about 400 deaths each year, including snakebite deaths not captured by hospital records. (Sri Lanka Medical Association,2016) Table:01 summary of cases and death recorded against snake bites in health ministry of Sri Lanka
  • 7. Snakes have evolved the venomous apparatus for the purpose of procurement of food. Figure 1: Snake-venomous apparatus
  • 8. Snake venom • proteins 1. Enzymes 2. Non enzymatic polypeptides • Carbohydrates • Lipids • Amines • Coagulant compounds • metals
  • 9. • Mainly contains proteins. >90%, Dry weight. 1.Enzymes: (Vaperid;80-90% of venoms, Elapid;25-70% of venoms) Hydrolases Hyaluronidase Nucleosidase peptidases 2. Non enzymatic polypeptides DNAase ATPase 1-amino acid oxidase Phospholipase A2 (PLA2)
  • 10. What are the available treatments for snake bites? Anti venom serum (AVS) Anti venom is immunoglobulin purified from the plasma of a horse, donkey or sheep. For the last century, antiserum is the only available specific treatment.
  • 11. Limitations • Does not provide enough protection against venom induced haemorrhage, necrosis, nephrotoxicity • Often develops hypersensitivity reactions. • Costly and may be limited supply. • Some must be kept refrigerated. • Various side effects such as anaphylactic shock, pyrogen reaction , serum sickness.(due to high concentration of non-immunoglobulin proteins) • Absolute specificity
  • 12. Herbs as an alternative to anti venom serum?
  • 13. Medicinal plants have been used as folk medicine for treatment of snake bites. Topical application of the plants applying sap onto the bitten area, chewing leaves or barks Drinking plant extracts or decoctions Injecting the extracts
  • 14. The advantages of herbs. • Cheap • Easily available, • Stable at room temperature • Neutralize a wide range of venom • Antitoxin activity • Anti-inflammatory activity So, plant remedies may be beneficial for the treatment of snake bites and may find alternative to anti venom serum. • Anti-haemorrhagic • Anticoagulant activity • Enzyme inhibitory activity • Antibacterial and antiparasitic activity • Antimyotoxic activity
  • 15. Botanical Name and Family Local Name Part used Mode of preparation and/or administration 1 Achyranthes aspera (Amaranthaceae) Gas karalhaba Fresh root Root extract is prepared in drinking water and given orally once a day. 2 Hemidesmus indicus (Asclepiadaceae) Iramusu Fresh root Aqueous extract of root is prepared in water and given orally, two or three times a day. 3 Gardenia sp.(Rubiaceae) kollakada Fresh root 5 g of roots are crushed and mixed with 200ml of drinking water. Root paste along with water is given orally in twice a day. Table 2: List of medicinal plants and their uses of treatment of snake bites
  • 16. 4 Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) Wanduru me (Achariya- pala) Fresh root 5 g of roots of plant are crushed and mixed with 200 ml of drinking water. Aqueous extract of root is given orally for twice a day. 5 Tephrosia purpurea (Fabaceae) kathurupila Root Aqueous extracts of root is prepared in 250 ml of drinking water. Aqueous extract of root is given orally for three times a day for one day.
  • 17. 6 Haldina cordifolia (Rubiaceae) Kolon Bark 50 g fresh bark of this plant together with 50 g root of Butea monosperma are made into paste, and mixed with 250 ml of drinking water and given twice a day for two days. 7 Soymida febrifuga (Meliaceae) Yak kon Bark 50 g fresh bark of this plant together with 50 g root of Holarrhena pubescens (kirimawara) are made into paste, and mixed with 200 ml of drinking water and given orally three times a day for three days.
  • 18. 8 Scoparia dulcis (Scrophulariac eae) Walkothth- amalli Whole plant 50 g of whole plant together with 50g of whole plant of Phyllanthus amarus( pitawakka)and 50 g Sida acuta (gas bebila(whole plant) are made into paste and mixed with 250 ml of drinking water and given orally in twice a day for 1-2 days. 9 Mimosa pudica (Fabaceae) Nidikumba Whole plant 50 g of whole plants are made extract in 250 ml of drinking water and shaken well and filtered. Extract of whole plant is given twice a day in one day only.
  • 19. Plants show neutralizing properties against snake venoms.
  • 20. How the herbal compounds neutralize the toxic venom constituents within the body? Many hypothesis have been proposed such as 1. protein precipitation hypothesis 2. enzyme inactivation hypothesis 3. chelation hypothesis 4. adjuvant action hypothesis 5. anti-oxidant hypothesis 6. protein folding hypothesis 7. combination hypothesis
  • 21. The above hypothesis have their own limitations. Till date, there is no definite answer or mechanism. Among these, protein precipitation-inactivation hypothesis is more acceptable.
  • 22. Combination therapy In many cases, the several herbal extracts are more powerful than the individual herbal compounds. combination therapy is an old practice of Ayurveda medicine. In Ayurveda there could be combination ranging from two to twenty formulations, in fixed doses. Thus it is evident that not only herbal components, but also metal ions are important part in combination.
  • 23. It is well recognized in Ayurveda that a medicinal plant may need to be administered with other plants, that is in combination, in order to exert its therapeutic effect. The second plant may potentiate the action of the first, while the third might help to prevent the toxicity of the second plant.
  • 24. Interestingly….. The herbal compounds could effectively neutralize snake venom in presence of AVS, which is another advantage of herbal compounds. It may be opined that the identified herbal compounds having AVS potentiating actions might be selected for further trials. Combination of these two antidotes may find a suitable alternative to the snake bite treatment in the near future.
  • 25. How herbal chemicals act? Enzymes-Snake venom molecules are composed of three- dimensional proteins and some non-protein components. These proteins could be dissolved with natural solvents like bromelain and papain. Bromelain is found in pineapple (Ananas comosus) Papain is present in papaya fruit (Carica papaya). Thus these two natural proteolytic enzymes could be used to neutralize snake venom proteins.
  • 26. Table 3: List of medicinal plants in Sri Lanka and their chemicals compound use in snake bites. Botanical name Local name Chemical compound Effects Snake Areca catechu PUWAK polyphenols inhibition of the haemorrhagic activity Naja naja Piper longum Thippili piperine Neutrilized venom enzyemes Russell's viper Azadirachta indica KOHOMBA active compound AIPLAI inhibition of PLA2 enzymes Daboia russelli , Naja naja Curcuma longa KAHA Turmerin inhibition of edema, multitoxic phospholipase A2 effectively countered the myotoxic activity Naja naja
  • 27. Botanical name Local name Chemical compound Effects Snake Hemidesmus indicus IRAMUSU 2-hydroxy-4- methoxy benzoic acid reduction in venom induced free radical generation neutralized PLA2 Daboia russelli Strychnosnux vomica KADURU caffeic acid anti inflammatory activity seed extract has anti hemorrhagic potential Daboia russelli Tamarindus indica SIYAMBALA Polyphenolic compounds inflammation, local tissue damage, and hypotension have been inhibited by the seed Daboia russelli Withaniasomnifera AMUKKARA glycoprotein Inhibition of hyaluronidase activity cobra and viper Table 2: List of medicinal plants in Sri Lanka and their chemicals cont………
  • 28. • Only a few plant species have been scientifically investigated and still less had their active components isolated and characterized both structurally and functionally. • Globally, traditional healers are practicing herbal medicine to cure snake envenomation; however, the practice is not really recognized by modern medicine.
  • 29. Conclusion: There are lot of herbals that can be used as a treatment for snake bites. The variation of anti-venom medicinal plants effectively illustrates the importance of herbal medicine.
  • 30. References: 1. Abdel-Aziz, S., Aeron, A. and Kahil, T. (2016). Health Benefits and Possible Risks of Herbal Medicine. 2. Anon, (2010). [online] Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/206748296_Anti- snake_venom_properties_of_medicinal_plants [Accessed 10 Feb. 2019]. 3. D.umn.edu. (2017). [online] Available at: http://www.d.umn.edu/biology/documents/Keyler1.pdf [Accessed 12 Feb. 2019]. 4. Opensiuc.lib.siu.edu. (2009). [online] Available at: http://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1474&context=ebl [Accessed 08 Feb. 2019]. 5. Gupta, Y. and Peshin, S. (2012). Do herbal medicines have potential for managing snake bite envenomation?. Toxicology International, 19(2), p.89. 6. Jarwani, B., Jadav, P. and Madaiya, M. (2013). Demographic, epidemiologic and clinical profile of snake bite cases, presented to Emergency Medicine department, Ahmedabad, Gujarat. 7. Jindal, G., Mahajan, V. and Parmar, V. (2010). Antisnake venom in a neonate with snake bite. Indian Pediatrics, 47(4), pp.349-350. 8. Penchalapratap, G., Sudarsanam, G., Pushpan, R. and Prasad, G. (2010). Herbal remedies for Snake bites in Ethnic practices of Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh.. [online] PubMed Central (PMC). Available at: http://europepmc.org/articles/PMC3336291 [Accessed 08 Feb. 2019]. 9. SR, K. (2013). Traditional Herbal Medicines for the Treatment of Snake Bite and Scorpion Sting by the Tribes of South Surguja, Chhattisgarh, India. [online] Academia.edu. Available at: http://www.academia.edu/12698710/Traditional_Herbal_Medicines_for_the_Treatment_of_Snake_Bite_and_Scorp ion_Sting_by_the_Tribes_of_South_Surguja_Chhattisgarh_India [Accessed 12 Feb. 2019]. 10. Upasani, M., Upasani, S., Beldar, V., Beldar, C. and Gujarathi, P. (2017). Infrequent use of medicinal plants from India in snakebite treatment.
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