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Improving Safety and Mobility for Older Road Users in Australia and Japan

International Technology Scanning Program Improving Safety and Mobility for Older Road Users in Australia and Japan Sponsored by In cooperation with American Association of State Highway and Transportation
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International Technology Scanning Program Improving Safety and Mobility for Older Road Users in Australia and Japan Sponsored by In cooperation with American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials National Cooperative Highway Research Program October 2008 NOTICE The Federal Highway Administration provides high-quality information to serve Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement. 1. Report No. FHWA-PL Government Accession No. 3. Recipient s Catalog No. 4. Title and Subtitle Improving Safety and Mobility for Older Road Users in Australia and Japan 7. Author(s) Elizabeth Alicandri, Pamela Hutton, Dr. Susan Chrysler, Dr. Leanna Depue, Howard Glassman, Dr. ThomasGranda, David Harkey, Thomas Smith, Barry Warhoftig 9. Performing Organization Name and Address American Trade Initiatives P.O. Box 8228 Alexandria, VA Sponsoring Agency Name and Address Office of International Programs Office of Policy Federal Highway Administration U.S. Department of Transportation American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials 15. Supplementary Notes FHWA COTR: Hana Maier, Office of International Programs 5. Report Date October Performing Organization Code 8. Performing Organization Report No. 10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS) 11. Contract or Grant No. DTFH61-99-C Type of Report and Period Covered 14. Sponsoring Agency Code 16. Abstract Age-related declines in vision, cognition, and physical ability affect how older road users drive and use other transportation modes. The Federal Highway Administration, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, and National Cooperative Highway Research Program sponsored a scanning study to assess infrastructure improvements designed to aid older road users in Australia and Japan. The scan team found that using a systems approach provides for integration of safety of older roads users and that enhancing safety for older road users improves safety for all. The team also observed engineering, policy, and educational programs that can improve the safety and mobility of older road users. Team recommendations for U.S. implementation include integrating information from the scan on infrastructure improvements benefiting older road users into relevant U.S. documents, encouraging partnerships between government and nongovernment organizations to address older road users needs, and developing a research program on policies and interventions targeted to older road users. 17. Key Words mobility, older road user, safety, systems approach, transportation infrastructure 19. Security Classify. (of this report) Unclassified Form DOT F (8-72) 20. Security Classify. (of this page) Unclassified 18. Distribution Statement No restrictions. This document is available to the public from the: Office of International Programs, FHWA-HPIP, Room 3325, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC No. of Pages 52 Reproduction of completed page authorized Technical Report Documentation Page 22. Price Free Improving Safety and Mobility for Older Road Users in Australia and Japan Prepared by the International Scanning Study Team: Elizabeth Alicandri (cochair) FHWA Pamela Hutton (cochair) Colorado DOT Dr. Susan T. Chrysler (report facilitator) Texas Transportation Institute Dr. Leanna Depue Missouri DOT Howard M. Glassman Florida Metropolitan Planning Organization Advisory Council Dr. Thomas M. Granda FHWA David L. Harkey University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center Thomas J. Smith FHWA Barry I. Warhoftig West Virginia DOT for Federal Highway Administration U.S. Department of Transportation American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials National Cooperative Highway Research Program October 2008 International Technology Scanning Program The International Technology Scanning Program, sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), evaluates innovative foreign technologies and practices that could significantly benefit U.S. highway transportation systems. This approach allows for advanced technology to be adapted and put into practice much more efficiently without spending scarce research funds to re-create advances already developed by other countries. FHWA and AASHTO, with recommendations from NCHRP, jointly determine priority topics for teams of U.S. experts to study. Teams in the specific areas being investigated are formed and sent to countries where significant advances and innovations have been made in technology, management practices, organizational structure, program delivery, and financing. Scan teams usually include representatives from FHWA, State departments of transportation, local governments, transportation trade and research groups, the private sector, and academia. international counterparts, further conserving resources and advancing the state of the art. Scan studies have also exposed transportation professionals to remarkable advancements and inspired implementation of hundreds of innovations. The result: large savings of research dollars and time, as well as significant improvements in the Nation s transportation system. Scan reports can be obtained through FHWA free of charge by ing Scan reports are also available electronically and can be accessed on the FHWA s Office of International Programs Web site at After a scan is completed, team members evaluate findings and develop comprehensive reports, including recommendations for further research and pilot projects to verify the value of adapting innovations for U.S. use. Scan reports, as well as the results of pilot programs and research, are circulated throughout the country to State and local transportation officials and the private sector. Since 1990, more than 75 international scans have been organized on topics such as pavements, bridge construction and maintenance, contracting, intermodal transport, organizational management, winter road maintenance, safety, intelligent transportation systems, planning, and policy. The International Technology Scanning Program has resulted in significant improvements and savings in road program technologies and practices throughout the United States. In some cases, scan studies have facilitated joint research and technology-sharing projects with iv International Technology Scan Reports International Technology Scanning Program: Bringing Global Innovations to U.S. Highways Safety Improving Safety and Mobility for Older Road Users in Australia and Japan (2008) Safety Applications of Intelligent Transportation Systems in Europe and Japan (2006) Traffic Incident Response Practices in Europe (2006) Underground Transportation Systems in Europe: Safety, Operations, and Emergency Response (2006) Roadway Human Factors and Behavioral Safety in Europe (2005) Traffic Safety Information Systems in Europe and Australia (2004) Signalized Intersection Safety in Europe (2003) Managing and Organizing Comprehensive Highway Safety in Europe (2003) European Road Lighting Technologies (2001) Commercial Vehicle Safety, Technology, and Practice in Europe (2000) Methods and Procedures to Reduce Motorist Delays in European Work Zones (2000) Innovative Traffic Control Technology and Practice in Europe (1999) Road Safety Audits Final Report and Case Studies (1997) Speed Management and Enforcement Technology: Europe and Australia (1996) Safety Management Practices in Japan, Australia, and New Zealand (1995) Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety in England, Germany, and the Netherlands (1994) Transportation Performance Measures in Australia, Canada, Japan, and New Zealand (2004) European Right-of-Way and Utilities Best Practices (2002) Geometric Design Practices for European Roads (2002) Wildlife Habitat Connectivity Across European Highways (2002) Sustainable Transportation Practices in Europe (2001) Recycled Materials in European Highway Environments (1999) European Intermodal Programs: Planning, Policy, and Technology (1999) National Travel Surveys (1994) Policy and Information European Practices in Transportation Workforce Development (2003) Intelligent Transportation Systems and Winter Operations in Japan (2003) Emerging Models for Delivering Transportation Programs and Services (1999) National Travel Surveys (1994) Acquiring Highway Transportation Information From Abroad (1994) International Guide to Highway Transportation Information (1994) International Contract Administration Techniques for Quality Enhancement (1994) European Intermodal Programs: Planning, Policy, and Technology (1994) Planning and Environment Active Travel Management: The Next Step in Congestion Management (2007) Managing Travel Demand: Applying European Perspectives to U.S. Practice (2006) Transportation Asset Management in Australia, Canada, England, and New Zealand (2005) Operations Freight Mobility and Intermodal Connectivity in China (2008) Commercial Motor Vehicle Size and Weight Enforcement in Europe (2007) Active Travel Management: The Next Step in Congestion Management (2007) Improving Safety and Mobility for Older Road Users in Australia and Japan v All publications are available on the Internet at Managing Travel Demand: Applying European Perspectives to U.S. Practice (2006) Traffic Incident Response Practices in Europe (2006) Underground Transportation Systems in Europe: Safety, Operations, and Emergency Response (2006) Superior Materials, Advanced Test Methods, and Specifications in Europe (2004) Freight Transportation: The Latin American Market (2003) Meeting 21st Century Challenges of System Performance Through Better Operations (2003) Traveler Information Systems in Europe (2003) Freight Transportation: The European Market (2002) European Road Lighting Technologies (2001) Methods and Procedures to Reduce Motorist Delays in European Work Zones (2000) Innovative Traffic Control Technology and Practice in Europe (1999) European Winter Service Technology (1998) Traffic Management and Traveler Information Systems (1997) European Traffic Monitoring (1997) Highway/Commercial Vehicle Interaction (1996) Winter Maintenance Technology and Practices Learning from Abroad (1995) Advanced Transportation Technology (1994) Snowbreak Forest Book Highway Snowstorm Countermeasure Manual (1990) Infrastructure General Audit Stewardship and Oversight of Large and Innovatively Funded Projects in Europe (2006) Construction Management Practices in Canada and Europe (2005) European Practices in Transportation Workforce Development (2003) Contract Administration: Technology and Practice in Europe (2002) European Road Lighting Technologies (2001) Geometric Design Practices for European Roads (2001) Geotechnical Engineering Practices in Canada and Europe (1999) Geotechnology Soil Nailing (1993) Infrastructure Pavements Warm-Mix Asphalt: European Practice (2007) Long-Life Concrete Pavements in Europe and Canada (2007) Quiet Pavement Systems in Europe (2005) Pavement Preservation Technology in France, South Africa, and Australia (2003) Recycled Materials in European Highway Environments (1999) South African Pavement and Other Highway Technologies and Practices (1997) Highway/Commercial Vehicle Interaction (1996) European Concrete Highways (1992) European Asphalt Technology (1990) Infrastructure Bridges Bridge Evaluation Quality Assurance in Europe (2008) Prefabricated Bridge Elements and Systems in Japan and Europe (2005) Bridge Preservation and Maintenance in Europe and South Africa (2005) Performance of Concrete Segmental and Cable-Stayed Bridges in Europe (2001) Steel Bridge Fabrication Technologies in Europe and Japan (2001) European Practices for Bridge Scour and Stream Instability Countermeasures (1999) Advanced Composites in Bridges in Europe and Japan (1997) Asian Bridge Structures (1997) Bridge Maintenance Coatings (1997) Northumberland Strait Crossing Project (1996) European Bridge Structures (1995) vi INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY SCAN REPORTS Contents Executive Summary... 1 Chapter 1: Background... 3 Purpose... 3 Organization of Report... 4 Scan Team Members... 4 Issues of Interest... 5 Host Delegations... 5 Travel Itinerary... 5 Chapter 2: A Systems Approach to Safety Benefits Older Road Users...7 Strategic Safety Plans... 9 Strategic Partnering Local Governments Motoring Clubs Health Service Providers, Insurance Companies, and Retirement Planners Chapter 3: Policy and Planning for Older Road User Safety Examples of Evidence-Based Planning and Policy Development for Older Road Users Personal Travel Surveys Long-Range Land-Use and Development Plans Local Government Safety Planning Roadway Infrastructure Inventory Surveys of Transport System Users and Citizens Chapter 4: Infrastructure Improvements for Older Road Users Standards and Guidelines Institutional Issues in Implementing Infrastructure Changes Jurisdictional Funding Priorities Regional Coordination and Partnerships Design Flexibility Implementation Examples Intersection Operations and Design Traffic Control Devices Pedestrian Facilities Colored Pavements Chapter 5: Driving Reduction and Cessation Issues for Older Road Users Licensing and Assessment Training and Education Community-Based Mobility Options Chapter 6: Future Trends and Research Initiatives Future Trends Societal Change Toward Aging in Place Transport Mode Changes: Mobility Scooters, Motorcycles, and Recreational Vehicles Research Initiatives Chapter 7: Major Findings and Implementation Plan Findings Implementation Plan Enhancement of U.S. Roadway Design and Operations Practice Outreach to Nontraditional Partners Targeted Research Program Establishment of Development Guidelines Professional Training for Transportation Professionals...28 Endnotes Appendix A: Amplifying Questions Appendix B: Itinerary and Meeting Schedule...35 Appendix C: Host Country Contacts Appendix D: Scan Team Members Figures Figure 1. Older road users scan team in Tokyo, Japan (from left to right, Barry Warhoftig, Susan Chrysler, Thomas Granda, Pamela Hutton, Thomas Smith, Leanna DePue, Howard Glassman, Elizabeth Alicandri, and David Harkey)... 4 Figure 2. Illustration of a systems approach to safety from VicRoads Arrive Alive!... 7 Improving Safety and Mobility for Older Road Users in Australia and Japan vii Figure 3. Automated speed enforcement warning sign in Sydney, Australia... 8 Figure 4. Reduced speed zone in high-pedestrian traffic area in Brisbane, Australia... 8 Figure 5. Examples of state strategic road safety plans in Australia Figure 6. Logo for community RoadSafe program sponsored by VicRoads in Victoria, Australia Figure 19. An elderly shopper using a mobility scooter in Tokyo, Japan Figure 20. Scan team members test the Monash University Accident Research Centre driving simulator Figure 21. Example of a road train heavy vehicle used in rural Australia Figure 7. Local Government Association of Queensland Community-Based Transport Toolbox Figure 8. Protected right-turn signals in dedicated right-turn lanes in Melbourne (equivalent to left turn in the United States) Figure 9. Median barrier treatments and pavement marking text in Tokyo Figure 10. Underground pedestrian walkway under a busy urban intersection in Tokyo Figure 11. A crosswalk in Tokyo with separate lanes for bicycles and pedestrians Figure 12. Raised crosswalk with curb extensions in Sydney, Australia Figure 13. A pedestrian crossing with refuge islands and gates in Sydney, Australia Figure 14. Midblock pedestrian-actuated crossing with pedestrian fencing in Melbourne, Australia Figure 15. Tram-bus transfer station in Melbourne Figure 16. Red-colored pavement used to mark a bus queue-jump lane at a signalized intersection in Melbourne, Australia Figure 17. Green-colored pavement used to highlight a bicycle lane as it crosses an unsignalized intersection in Sydney, Australia Figure 18. Bus lane with red pavement on the Sydney Harbor Bridge viii CONTENTS Executive Summary In March 2008, a scan team of nine transportation safety, traffic engineering, and human factors experts from the United States visited Australia and Japan to assess and evaluate infrastructure improvements designed to aid older road users. The team met with state and federal government transportation officials, university research centers, and staff from motorists clubs and other nongovernmental organizations interested in the mobility of older people. The team selected these countries to visit because they have demographics and aging trends similar to those in the United States and strong traffic safety records. From the information the team obtained during the scanning study, it identified several planning, design, and operational changes that could be implemented in the United States to improve the mobility and safety of older road users. The team highlighted the following findings from the scanning study: ``The aging of society is a global issue. Transportation providers in developed countries worldwide will face a common set of issues because of the aging of transportation system users. ``Highway safety must be emphasized at the highest levels of government to build political will to implement system changes that benefit older road users. ``Local government involvement in implementing safety plans is critical for success. ``A systems approach to highway safety is most effective. This involves engineering, education, enforcement, and evaluation. ``Infrastructure and operational changes hold great promise for improving safety for older road users. ``Historical safety data are used in the countries studied, particularly Australia, for planning, policy development, and program evaluation. ``Improving safety for older road users improves safety for all and vice versa. ``Removing driving privileges prematurely has unintended consequences, such as forcing users to less safe modes of transport. ``Mobility options are critical for continued quality of life in terms of physical and mental health outcomes. A subgroup of the scan team was tasked with identifying items that could be implemented in the United States. The findings of this scanning study will be implemented through the following activities: ``Enhancement of U.S. roadway design and operations practice through incorporation of best practices and research findings into standards, guidelines, and handbooks used by transportation professionals ``Outreach to nontraditional partners, such as motoring clubs, health-care providers, and seniors organizations, to promote self-assessment for drivers and education about mobility alternatives to driving ``Encouragement of a targeted research program to evaluate specific infrastructure improvements observed in these countries that show promise to aid older road users ``Establishment of development guidelines for use by local government and real estate developers to promote best practices for access and use by older residents Improving Safety and Mobility for Older Road Users in Australia and Japan 1 2 1 Background C H A P TE R In March 2008, a team of nine transportation safety, traffic engineering, and human factors experts from the United States visited Australia and Japan to assess and evaluate infrastructure improvements designed to aid older road users. The scan team members sought policy options and initiatives on transportation system planning, operations, and design as they relate to older road users. The group met with state and federal government transportation officials, university research centers, and staff from motorists clubs and other nongovernment organizations interested in the mobility of older people. Although the scan focuse
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