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Neutrinos: The Big Questions and How to Answer Them (and Others)

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Title: Neutrinos: The Big Questions and How to Answer Them (and Others) 1 Neutrinos The Big Questions and How to Answer Them (and Others) Manfred Lindner Technical University Munich Future Perspectives in High Energy Physics Kyungpook National University Sept. 28-Oct. 1, 2005, Daegu, Korea 2 Motivation Physics Beyond the SM gauge bosons Higgs quarks leptons 3 New Physics Neutrino Sources 4 Parameters for 3 Light Neutrinos mass mixing parameters m1 , Dm221, Dm231 , sign(Dm231) ne nm nt questions? Dirac or Majorana? absolute mass scale m1? mass ordering sgn(Dm231) ? how small is q13, q23 maximal? ? leptonic CP violation? LSND ?? sterile neutrino(s)? L/E pattern of oscillations normal invertedhierarchical or degenerate 5 Four Methods of Mass Determination
  • kinematical
  • lepton number violation ?? Majorana nature
  • oscillations
  • astrophysics cosmology
  • 6 Kinematical Mass Determination 7 Neutrino-less Double b-Decay Majorana n ? 0n2b decay 8 m1?small ? mee const. (Dmij2)1/2 ?? sign(Dm231) m1 large ? mee m1 Feruglio Strumia Vissani Cosmology syst. errors ? X10? 0n2b - nuclear matrix elements? theory LR, RPV-SUSY, ... ? lepton number violation 9 Neutrino Oscillation Signals solar Reactors KAMLAND Beams K2K?MINOS atmospheric Dm221 (8.20.3) 10-5 eV2 tan2q12 0.39 0.05 Dm231 (2.20.6) 10-3 eV2 tan2q23 1.0 0.3 sin22q13 lt 0.16 LSND? ? MiniBooNE 10 L/E Dependence Atmospheric Oscillations oscillation decay decoherence L/E dependence smeared out! 11
  • Bad L/E resolution for
  • horizontal events (dL/dcosq is big!)
  • events with small energy
  • cuts in the E-cosq plane
  • SK II data decay decoherence oscillation
  • Result
  • 3,4s for decay
  • 3,8s for de-coherence
  • Dm22.4 10-3eV2
  • ??long baseline exp.
  • 12 Testing Solar L/E with KamLAND rate plus shape ? oscillations at 99.999995 CL Best fit ?m27.90.6-0.510-5eV2 tan2?0.46
  • improved tests of L/E
  • Super Kamiokande
  • KamLAND
  • 13 Solar Neutrinos Learning About the Sun
  • Observables
  • optical (total energy, surface dynamics, sun-spots, historical records, B, ...)
  • neutrinos (rates, spectrum, ...)
  • Topics
  • nuclear cross sections
  • solar dynamics
  • helio-seismology
  • variability
  • composition
  • 14 Learning from Atmospheric Neutrinos
  • Issues (in flux models)
  • - primaries (...)
  • - atmosphere
  • - cross sections
  • B-fields
  • shower models
  • ...
  • primary cosmic-ray interaction in the atmosphere cascade of secondaries p,K decay of secondaries m m nm nm ne nm ne nm neutrinos from decays of other particles 15 The Future of Oscillation Physics
  • Dm2 and qij regions ? improved oscillation experiments
  • controlled sources detectors
  • long baseline experiments with neutrino beams
  • reactor experiments with identical near far detector
  • Aims ? improved precision of the leading 2x2 oscillations ? detection of generic 3-neutrino effects q13, CP violation ? precision neutrino physics 16 New Neutrino Beams
  • conventional beams, superbeams? MINOS, CNGS, T2K, NOnA, T2H,
  • b-beams? pure ne and ne beams from radioactive decays g 100
  • neutrino factories? clean neutrino beams from decay of stored ms
  • - 17 New Reactor Experiments identical detectors ? many errors cancel
  • Double Chooz
  • Braidwood
  • Angra,
  • no degeneracies no correlations no matter effects E4MeV ? 2km 4km 40km 80km 18 q13 Sensitivity in the Next Generation Huber, ML, Rolinec, Schwetz, Winter 19 Leptonic CP-Violation assume sin22q13 0.1 , dp/2 ? combine T2KNOnAreactor
  • bounds or measurements of leptonic CP-violation
  • leptonic CP-violation in MR?? baryon asymetry via leptogenesis
  • 20 Sensitivity Versus Time b-beams neutrino factory proton driver? 21 b-Beam and / or Neutrino Factory
  • very powerful
  • interesting options
  • ...technological challenges
  • further RD required
  • neutrino factory International Scoping Study 22 Incremental Path to a Neutrino Factory Era of sensitivity precision 23 What is precison neutrino physics good for?
  • unique flavour information
  • tests models / ideas about flavour
  • history elimination of SMA
  • 24 The Value of Precision for q13
  • models for masses mixings
  • input Known masses mixings
  • ? distribution of q13 predictions
  • q13 often close to experimental bounds
  • ? motivates new experiments
  • ? q13 controls 3-flavour effects
  • like leptonic CP-violation
  • for example sin22q13 lt 0.01 ?
  • physics question why is q13 so small ?
  • numerical coincidence
  • symmetry?? precision!
  • 25 Further Implications of Precision 26 The Interplay of Topics flavour symmetries Leptogenesis, supernovae, BBN, structure formation, UHE neutrinos, ... SM extensions neutrino properties masses, mixings, CP-phases, ... renormalization group mass spectrum, mixings, CP-phases, LVF, 0n2b-decay, ... ?n-parameters extremely valuable ? long term most precise flavour info 27 Neutrinos Cosmology
  • Dark Matter 25 Dark Energy 70
  • mass of all neutrinos 0.001 lt Wn lt 0.02
  • baryonic matter WB 0.04
  • neutrinos affect
  • BBN, structure formation
  • baryon asymmetry, ...
  • 28 Cosmology and Neutrino Mass
  • ns are hot dark matter ? smears structure formation on small scales
  • WMAP2dFGRS Lya
  • ? mass bound Smnlt 0.7 ... 1.2 eV
  • 3 degenerate neutrinos
  • ? mn lt 0.4 eV future improvements factor 5-10 ?
  • comparison with 0n2b, LSND
  • will be directly tested by KATRIN
  • 29 Baryon Asymmetry Neutrinos
  • Necessary Sakharov conditions
  • B-violating processes ?? sphalerons
  • C- and CP-violation ?? contained in model
  • departure from thermal equilibrium ?? G lt H
  • minimal leptogenesis works nicely
  • different interesting variants ... a talk by itself
  • 30 Supernova Neutrinos
  • Collaps of a typical star ? 1057 ns
  • 99 of the energy in ns
  • ns essential for explosion
  • 3d simulations do not explode
  • (so far... 2d?3d, ?convection? ... )
  • Dighe, Smirnov MSW SN Earth Very sensitive to finite q13 and sgn(Dm2) 31 2 possibilities Supernova neutron star or black hole Keeps cooling... abrupt end of n-emission
  • impressive signal of a black hole in neutrino light
  • neutrino masses ?? edge of n-signal
  • 32 Supernovae Gravitational Waves gravitational wave emission ?? quadrupol moment of the explosion Dimmelmeier, Font, Müller
  • additional information about galactic SN
  • global fits optical neutrinos gravitational waves
  • neutrino properties SN explosion dynamics
  • SN1987A strongest constraints on large extra dimensions
  • 33 Neutrinos from Glactic Center n galactic center p HE gs _at_ HESS, EGRET p p0 HE ns - SN shock front acceleration - n flux from GC ? n signal _at_ km3 detectors 34 Geo Neutrinos as Probes of the Earth
  • radiogenic part of terrestrial heat flow 80 mW/m2 ? total 40 TW - test geochemical model of the Earth, the Bulk Silicate Earth- test unorthodox ideas of Earths interior (K _at_ core, giant reactor)
  • 35 Geo-Neutrino Observation at KamLAND UTh geo-n candidates 2519-18 BSE model expectation 19 Observed ?e candidates 152 events Expected total backgrounds 12713 36 Conclusions Neutrinos probe new physics in many ways! 37 New Ideas LENA
  • Idea 30 kt underground liquid scintillator detector
  • neutrino properties (solar, atmospheric, reactor, beams)? solar neutrino spectroscopy? supernova relic neutrino detection? galactic supernova burst detection? geo neutrino detection? proton decay p? Kn (favoured in SUSY models) - K invisible in water - better energy resolution - K and decay producs observable in scintillator - t gt 3 1034y
  • 38 New Ideas R2D2 - Reactor Experiments
  • Symmetric reactors,detectors
  • R1, R2, D1, D2 - may be different
  • L11L22 and L12L21
  • Separate events from R1 and R2
  • R1 and R2 on/off times
  • Neutron displacement
  • Simplest case 1d line-up
  • 39 q13 in the Coming LBL Generation
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