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NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORS

NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORS Rocco Buttiglione Ph.D. is Full Professor of Philosophy of Politics, Society and Economics of the International Academy of Philosophy in the Principality of Liechtenstein, and Member
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NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORS Rocco Buttiglione Ph.D. is Full Professor of Philosophy of Politics, Society and Economics of the International Academy of Philosophy in the Principality of Liechtenstein, and Member of the European Parliament in Brussels. Patricia Donahue-White Ph.D., M.phil., lie. S. theol., is Assistant Professor of Theology and Philosophy at the Franciscan University of Steubenville, Steubenville, Ohio, and was a research assistant at the International Academy of Philosophy (lap) in the Principality of Liechtenstein in the SNF-project that led to this volume. H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr. is Professor Emeritus in the Departments of Medicine, Community Medicine, and Obstetrics and Gynecology, at Baylor College of Medicine, and Professor in the Department of Philosophy at Rice University in Houston, Texas. Kateryna Fedoryka Cuddeback holds a Ph.D. in Philosophy from the International Academy of Philosophy in the Principality of Liechtenstein and a B.A. in English Literature from the Christendom College, Front Royal, VA. She is a consultant and free-lance writer on population control and was a research assistant at the International Academy of Philosophy in the Principality of Liechtenstein in the SNF-project that led to this volume. Pascal Ide holds a Ph.D. in Medicine and Philosophy and an M.A. in Theology. He is Official in the Vatican Congregation for Catholic Education. Manuel Lavados, M.D., Ph.D., is Assistant Professor in the Center for Bioethics at the Medical Faculty of the Pontifica Universidad Cat6lica de Chile, in Santiago, Chile. Manuela Pasquini holds an M.A. in Philosophy from the International Academy of Philosophy in the Principality of Liechtenstein. 253 254 NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORS Giovanni Reale is Full Professor of Ancient Philosophy at the Catholic University of Milan, Director of the Centro di Ricerche di Metafisica (Sezione di Metafisica e Storia della Metafisica), and Director of the International Center for the Study of Plato and the Platonic Roots of Western Philosophy at the International Academy of Philosophy in the Principality of Liechtenstein. Armando Roa, M.D., was Professor of Psychiatry and Director of the Center of Bioethics and Humanistic Studies at the Medical School of the Universidad de Chile, and President of the Instituto de Chile and of the Academia Chilena de Medicina. Josef Seifert, Ph.D., is Rector and Full Professor of Philosophy - with special emphasis in Epistemology, Metaphysics, and Philosophical Anthropology - of the International Academy of Philosophy in the Principality of Liechtenstein, and was Director of the SNF research project that led to this volume. Piet van Spijk, is a Medical Doctor (FMH Internal Medicine) in Luzern, Switzerland. Paulina Taboada, M.D., M.phil., is Assistant Professor in the Department of Internal Medicine, and Executive Director of the Center for Bioethics at the Medical Faculty of the Pontificia Universidad Cat6lica de Chile, in Santiago, Chile. She was a research assistant at the the International Academy of Philosophy in the Principality of Liechtenstein in the SNFproject that led to this volume. INDEX Abnormality 90-91, 112, 124, 132, 196 Abortion 114, 131, 135, 158,231,234 Adaptation 68, 87, 94, 122, 133, 148, , 155 Aesculapius 30 Agrippa 125 AIDS Ill, 154 American Psychiatric Association 198 Anorexia nervosa 124 Aquinas 8 Apology 138 Aristotle 46, 64-65, 67, I 04, , , 192, 199 The Art of Prolonging Human Life 217 Beethoven I 13 Benoist, Jean 55 Biological function 202 Biological psychiatry 89, 101 Biomedical model of health 8, 10-11, 56-57, 60, 64, 75-77' 89-90, 109, 187, , ,246 Biomedicine 61, 63,67-68,72,74, 101 Biopsychosocial model of health 102, Ill Biosphere 73 Boethius I 03 Bonaventure 122 Boorse, Christopher Ill, 121, 166, 179, 194,200,203,248 Braunwald, Eugen 198 Cancer73, 75,94-95,109,111,115, 154, 177, 194 Canguilhem 59, 67-68,75 Carton, Paul 58 Charmides 7, Cicero 123 Clinical judgment Clinical observation 191 Conrad-Martius 46, 48, 126 Cornflakes 74 Darwin, Charles 150, 155 Death 58, 95, 105, 135, , , 192,214,222 Descartes, Renee 75, 93 Desire-satisfaction theory of the good II, 165, 169, , 175, 177 Diabetes 63, 89 Diagnosis 154, 190 Of congestive heart failure 154 Of mental illness 198 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 198 Diogenes Laertius 30 Disease (see also Health, Illness, Infirmity, Injury) I 0-11, 20-26, 55, 57-58, 60-63, 67, 72, 87, 89-93, 95, 97,102, ,120, , 129, , 147, , , , , , ,231,233, ,249 Categories of 187 Classifications of 160 Mental87, 89-92, 136,233 Anthropological-phenomenological method 91-92, Antipsychiatric model Psychosocial model 8, 88, 90-92, 102, Ill Sociall60 Views of 60, 63 Drugs26,61,94,232,234,243,247 Dysfunction (see also Function) 7, 67, 95, 101, 113, 153, 189, 190, 198 Eckart, Meister 256 INDEX Engel, George 102 Engelhardt, H.T. 112, 212, 224, 243, 244 Entelechy 121, 126 Ethics 232 And mental health 98 Eudemian Ethics 123 Euthanasia , 234 Evolution 42, 89 Of nouns 58 Fagot-Largeault, Anne 57 Federal Republic of Germany 149 Fertility 112, 121, 195, 221 Feurbach 76 Fleck, Ludwig 154 Frankl, V. 225 Freud, Sigmund 7, 27, 91, 102, 104, 129,217 Function (see also Disfunction) I 0-13, 22, 24, 34,56-57,60,67, 111, 113, 116, , 130, 138, 148, , 160, 165, , , , , 188, , 214, , 224, , 242, 246, Functional medicine 61 Functional patients 59 Functional unity 37, 46, 115 Functionalism 1,4 Functionalist approaches to health I, 60, 63,68 Functioning of an organism 1, 113, 117, 118, 121, 129, 165 Gadamer 242 Galen 217 Galileo 92 Gender 110, 112 General Systems Theory 7, 13, 33, 34, 48, , 224 Genetic 73, 89, Disease 160, 194 Engineering , 153, 160 God 26,28-30,55,62, 64,72-77, 136, 151, 153, 156,215,235 Good, Byron Greene, Marjorie Harvey 92 Health (see also Disease) I Biological approach I, 8-9 Biomedical approach 57, 199,246 Biomedical model 8, 10-11, 56-57, 60,64, 75-77,89-90,109,187, , ,246 Biopsychosocial model 102, 111 Care policy 229 Costs 239 Emotionalist approach 14, 231, 234 Functionalist approach I, 60, 63, 68 Genetic 160, 194 Holistic 7-8, 10-11,58-60, 187, 194, Insurance 150, 237 Mechanistic approach 1, 246 Mental 8-9,87-106, I 10, , 247 Models 10 Naturalist approach 58, 60-64, 66 Objectivist approach 56-57, 59, 63, 66, 172, 195 Personalist approach 7-9, 14, 33-48, 109, 118, 120, , 126, 128, 139, ,241, ,248 Realist approach 14,231, Right to 230, Subjectivist approach 165 Systems approach 8, 34 WHO definition 13, 74, 112, 137, 189, ,231,241,245,251 Hegel, G.W.F. 72,74-77 Heidegger , 109 Heiligenstiidt Testament 113 Hippocrates 61 Homeostasis 100 Homosexuality 90, 205, 225 INDEX 257 Illness 55, , 114, 124, , , 160, 177, , 197, ,205,215, ,237 Mental 89, 93, 128, , Psychological 233 Infirmity Injury , 137, 187, , International Preparatory Commission of the World Federation for Mental Health 88 Jahoda, Marie 88 Kant, Immanuel 116, , 126 Kass, Leon , 181,214,221 Kellogg 74 Last Judgement 117 Livius 125 Lord Beveridge 236 Macintyre, Alasdair 157 Madness 23, 236 Maritain, Jacques 188, 205 Mechanistic conception of health I, 246 Mechanist-reductionist conception of life I, 36, 113, 165,232, Medicine (see also Biomedicine) 3, 19, 33, 55, 57, 60, 63-65,90-92, 102, 112, , , 153, , ,169,187,193,205, Alternative 58 Ancient Greek 20, 24, 26, 92 Aquinas's conception of 66 Art of67 Biopsychosocial model102 Conventional 59 Functional 61 Goals of 10, 232 History of Mild medicine 59 Naturalist 72, 77 Objectivist 63 Official 58 Philosophy of7, 19,229,247 Psychosomatic 129 Western 225 Mental illness (see also Disease, Mental and Illness, Mental) Mesopotamia 61 Michaelangelo 117 Moral communities 157, Napoleon 91 Naturalism Naturalist approach to health 58, 60-64, 66 Newton 92 Nordenfe1t, Lennart 3, 109, 111, 130, 133, 166, 169, , , 224, 242, Normality 56-57, 59, 67-68, 75, 87, 89-91, , 118, 122, , 132, 134, , 160, 179, 188, 191, 192, , ,201, 220,249 Clinical 197, 249 Statistical 196, 249 Normativism Norms Ethical 63, 101 Of Health 242 Naturall80 Ofpraxis 11 Objectivism 11-12, 55-57, 59, 61, 63, 66, 68,71-72,74-75,77-78, , , 175, 176, 180, , Objectivist approach to health 56-57, 59, 63,66, 172,195 Oedipus complex 7, 29 Open systems theory 36, 38, 101 Organismic conception of life 36, Pain 20-21, 23, 28, 72, 95, 117, 126, , 134, , , 258 INDEX 160, 175, 178, , , 198,205,214,222,223,232 Paul (Apostle) 125 Person 1-2,4-8, 11-12,33-34,38-48, 59,62,65-66,78,87,92-93,96-106, 109, Ill-138, , 165, , , , 198, 202,204,209,214,216,218, , ,241, Personalist 1-2,4-6, II, 14, 33, , 166, 169, 182, Conceptofhealth 7-9, 14,33-48, 109, 118, 120, , 126, 128, 139, ,241, ,248 Personhood 5, 33, 34, 48, 62, 109, I 10, 118, 137, 246 Perspectivism 35,41 Perversion 157 Phaedo!29 Phaedrus 122 Phenomenology 5, 8, 9, 12, 56,91-92, 96,99, 187,194,202 Phoebus 30 Physics 67 Plato7, 19-30,122,135,138 Polish Personalist School of Ethics 5 Pope Pius XII Porn, Ingmar 169, 204 Post-modernism 147 Pregnancy 114, 137, 157 Psychiatry 87, 89, 101 Biological 89 Psychoanalysis 27, 29, 91, 105 Psychology 220 Humanist Schools 247 Radamanthys 135 Realism Metaphysical 5, 9 Philosophical 14 Realist approach to health 14,231, Reductionism 1-2, 4, 7, 33-34, 36, 38, 43-44,46-48,91,102,105, ,112,126, Mechanist 43 Republic 27 Research 101,217,230 Epigenetic 99 Richard of St. Victor I 03 Ricoeur, Paul 71 Rimbaud 63 Roman Catholic 149 Sacks, Oliver 128 Santa Fe Institute 73 Sartre, Jean Paul 75 Schizophrenia 90-91, 93, 132, 134, 210 Schizophrenia, the Sacred Symbol of Psychiatry 91 Segal, Howard 74 Sein und Zeit I 09 Shakespeare 129, 135 Sicard, Didier 57 Socrates 7, 19-20, 29, 129, 138 Soul7, 19-30,66-67,69,77, 102, 113, 125, 128, 135, ,246 Society I, 4-5, 6, 12, 14, 35, 45, 55, 59, 61, 72,87, 72, 87,90-91,94,99, 101, 104, 132, 153,!58, 195, ,220,231,236,244,251 German 158 Species goals II, 161 Species plan I , 115, 127, 132, 137,139,244,248,250 Statistical normality 196, 249 Subjectivist approach to health 165 Sydenham 193 Symptomatology 92 Symptoms 61, 89, 177, , ,203,248 Psychotic 135 Szasz, Thomas Taboada, Paulina 126 Timaeus 7, Toulmin, Stephen Value 1, 5-6, 9, 11-12, 14,40-41, 47, 59, 71,88, 110,124,127,132,137, INDEX , , 165, 167, 169, 173, , 179, 183, 195,219, , 249 Aesthetic 9, Biological 39 Culture-dependent 147 Human Objective 174, Statistical 248 Subjectivist 88, 166, 168, 243, 244 Van Wesel, Andries 61 Varieties of Goodness 180 Virchow 193 Vitalism 44 Vitalistic conception of life 36, 217 Von Bertanlanffy, Ludwig 34-37, 39-44, 101 Von Hayek 235 Von Jhering, Rudolph 238 Von Mises, Ludwig 236 Von Wright 180 Well-being 5-6, 9-14, 67, 74, 88, 94-96, 100, 117, 119, , 131, , , , , , , , ,203,209,210, ,225, , , ,250 Whitbeck, Caroline 169 Wittgenstein, Ludwig 75 Woestelanddt, Bernard 75 Women 212, 238 World Health Organization 12-13, 74, 112, , 131, 189, , ,231, , Philosophy and Medicine 21. G.J. Agich and C.E. Begley (eds.): The Price of Health ISBN E.E. Shelp (ed.): Sexuality and Medicine. Vol. I: Conceptual Roots ISBN ; Pb E.E. Shelp (ed.): Sexuality and Medicine. Vol. II: Ethical Viewpoints in Transition ISBN ; Pb R.C. McMillan, H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr., and S.F. Spieker (eds.): Euthanasia and the Newborn. Conflicts Regarding Saving Lives ISBN ; Pb S.F. Spieker, S.R. Ingman and I.R. Lawson (eds.): Ethical Dimensions of Geriatric Care. Value Conflicts for the 21th Century ISBN L. Nordenfelt: On the Nature of Health. An Action-Theoretic Approach. 2nd, rev. ed SBN ; Pb S.F. Spieker, W.B. Bondeson and H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr. (eds.): The Contraceptive Ethos. Reproductive Rights and Responsibilities ISBN S.F. Spieker, I. Alon, A. de Vries and H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr. (eds.): The Use of Human Beings in Research. With Special Reference to Clinical Trials ISBN N.M.P. King, L.R. Churchill and A.W. Cross (eds.): The Physician as Captain of the Ship. A Critical Reappraisal ISBN H.-M. Sass and R.U. Massey (eds.): Health Care Systems. Moral Conflicts in European and American Public Policy ISBN X 31. R.M. Zaner (ed.): Death: Beyond Whole-Brain Criteria ISBN B.A. Brody (ed.): Moral Theory and Moral Judgments in Medical Ethics ISBN L.M. Kopelman and J.C. Moskop (eds.): Children and Health Care. Moral and Social Issues ISBN E.D. Pellegrino, J.P. Langan and J. Collins Harvey (eds.): Catholic Perspectives on Medical Morals. Foundational Issues ISBN B.A. Brody (ed.): Suicide and Euthanasia. Historical and Contemporary Themes ISBN H.A.M.J. ten Have, G.K. Kimsma and S.F. Spieker (eds.): The Growth of Medical Knowledge ISBN I. Lowy (ed.): The Polish School of Philosophy of Medicine. From Tytus Chalubinski ( ) to Ludwik Fleck ( ) ISBN T.J. Bole III and W.B. Bondeson: Rights to Health Care ISBN X Philosophy and Medicine 39. M.A.G. Cutter and E.E. Shelp (eds.): Competency. A Study oflnformal Competency Determinations in Primary Care ISBN J.L. Peset and D. Gracia (eds.): The Ethics of Diagnosis ISBN K.W. Wildes, S.J., F. Abel, S.J. and J.C. Harvey (eds.): Birth, Suffering, and Death. Catholic Perspectives at the Edges of Life [CSiB-1] ISBN ; Pb S.K. Toombs: The Meaning of Illness. A Phenomenological Account of the Different Perspectives of Physician and Patient ISBN ; Pb D. Leder (ed.): The Body in Medical Thought and Practice ISBN C. Delkeskamp-Hayes and M.A.G. Cutter (eds.): Science, Technology, and the Art of Medicine. European-American Dialogues ISBN R. Baker, D. Porter and R. Porter (eds.): The Codification of Medical Morality. Historical and Philosophical Studies of the Formalization of Western Medical Morality in the 18th and 19th Centuries, Volume One: Medical Ethics and Etiquette in the 18th Century ISBN K. Bayertz (ed.): The Concept of Moral Consensus. The Case of Technological Interventions in Human Reproduction ISBN L. N ordenfelt ( ed. ): Concepts and Measurement of Quality of Life in Health Care [ESiP-1] ISBN R. Baker and M.A. Strosberg (eds.) with the assistance of J. Bynum: Legislating Medical Ethics. A Study of the New York State Do-Not-Resuscitate Law ISBN R. Baker ( ed.): The Codification of Medical Morality. Historical and Philosophical Studies of the Formalization of Western Morality in the 18th and 19th Centuries, Volume Two: Anglo-American Medical Ethics and Medical Jurisprudence in the 19th Century ISBN ; Pb R.A. Carson and C.R. Burns (eds.): Philosophy of Medicine and Bioethics. A Twenty-Year Retrospective and Critical Appraisal ISBN K. W. Wildes, S.J. ( ed. ): Critical Choices and Critical Care. Catholic Perspectives on Allocating Resources in Intensive Care Medicine [CSiB-2] ISBN K. Bayertz (ed.): Sanctity of Life and Human Dignity ISBN Kevin Wm. Wildes, S.J. (ed.): Infertility: A Crossroad of Faith, Medicine, and Technology ISBN Kazumasa Hoshino (ed.): Japanese and Western Bioethics. Studies in Moral Diversity ISBN Philosophy and Medicine 55. E. Agius and S. Busuttil (eds.): Germ-Line Intervention and our Responsibilities to Future Generations ISBN L.B. McCullough: John Gregory and the Invention of Professional Medical Ethics and the Professional Medical Ethics and the Profession of Medicine ISBN L.B. McCullough: John Gregory's Writing on Medical Ethics and Philosophy of Medicine [CiME-1] ISBN H.A.M.J. ten Have and H.-M. Sass (eds.): Consensus Formation in Healthcare Ethics [ESiP-2] ISBN X 59. H.A.M.J. ten Have and J.V.M. Welie (eds.): Ownership of the Human Body. Philosophical Considerations on the Use of the Human Body and its Parts in Healthcare [ESiP-3] ISBN M.J. Cherry (ed.): Persons and Their Bodies. Rights, Responsibilities, Relationships ISBN R. Fan (ed.): Confucian Bioethics [APSiB-1] ISBN L.M. Kopelman ( ed.): Building Bioethics. Conversations with Clouser and Friends on Medical Ethics ISBN W.E. Stempsey: Disease and Diagnosis PB ISBN H.T. Engelhardt (ed.): The Philosophy of Medicine. Framing the Field ISBN S. Wear, J.J. Bono, G. Logue and A. McEvoy (eds.): Ethical Issues in Health Care on the Frontiers of the Twenty-First Century ISBN M. Potts, P.A. Byrne and R.G. Nilges (eds.): Beyond Brain Death. The Case Against Brain Based Criteria for Human Death ISBN X 67. L.M. Kopelman and K.A. De Ville (eds.): Physician-Assisted Suicide. What are the Issues? 200 I ISBN S.K. Toombs (ed.): Handbook of Phenomenology and Medicine ISBN ; Pb R. ter Meulen, W. Arts and R. Muffels (eds.): Solidarity in Health and Social Care in Europe ISBN A. Nordgren: Responsible Genetics. The Moral Responsibility of Geneticists for the Consequences of Human Genetics Research ISBN J. Tao Lai Po-wah (ed.): Cross-Cultural Perspectives on the (Im)Possibility of Global Bioethics ISBN P. Taboada, K. Fedoryka Cuddeback and P. Donohue-White (eds.): Person, Society and Value. Towards a Personalist Concept of Health ISBN J. Li: Can Death Be a Harm to the Person Who Dies? 2002 ISBN KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS- DORDRECHT I BOSTON I LONDON
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