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Prehistoric Georgia

Prehistoric Georgia The first inhabitants of Georgia
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Title: Prehistoric Georgia 1 Prehistoric Georgia
  • The first inhabitants of Georgia
  • 2 Prehistoric Native Americans
  • Who were they?
  • When did they arrive?
  • Where was their original home?
  • Why did they come?
  • What did they eat?
  • What kind of animals did they find here?
  • Where did they live?
  • 3 Vocabulary Terms
  • Define
  • Archeologist
  • Anthropologist
  • Shale
  • Artifact
  • Culture
  • Tribes
  • Antiquities
  • 4 Understanding through Artifacts
  • Oral Tradition Elders repeated the narrative of events often until younger generations had memorized them
  • Archeologists dig into earth to find artifacts (items made by people) that tell us about early inhabitants
  • Shale layered rock that can encase animals or birds
  • 5 Understanding through Culture
  • Anthropologists use artifacts, cave drawings, well-traveled pathways, and oral history to study a groups culture
  • Culture shared beliefs, traditions, music, art, and social institutions of a group of people
  • 6 Who, When, and How did Native Americans Arrive?
  • During the Ice Age
  • Approximately 12,000 years ago
  • Original Native Americans arrived on foot from Asia
  • Used passage known as Beringia
  • Served as land bridge
  • Possibly as wide as 1,300 miles
  • 7 Who, When, and How?
  • Migration unplanned
  • Nomads wandered looking for food
  • as they traveled, others followed
  • Climate warmer, more food
  • Found woolly mammoths, mastodons, ground sloths, etc.
  • All Native Americans descended from these Nomads
  • 8 Who, When, and How?
  • By 10,000 B.C. humans had arrived in what is now the Southeastern United States
  • The following 11,700 years of history are divided into four traditions
  • Paleo
  • Archaic
  • Woodland
  • Mississippian
  • 9 Paleo-Indian Period Before 10,000 years ago
  • Paleo means very old
  • Also called Old Stone Age
  • Mainly ate large animals such as mammoths, bison, mastodons, ground sloths
  • 10 Paleo-Indian Period
  • Early Indians never stayed in one place for long no evidence of fixed shelter
  • Camped in the open
  • Sometimes dug pits or built shelters to protect against weather
  • Followed herds of large animals
  • 11 Paleo Indians
  • Nomadic (roaming) hunters
  • Most tools and spear points made of stone
  • 12 Archaic Period8000 B.C. to 1000 B.C.
  • Archaic means old
  • Three time spans
  • Early (8000 B.C.-5000 B.C.)
  • Middle (began around 5000 B.C.)
  • Late (4000 B.C.-1000 B.C.)
  • Crude shelters stayed in one place longer
  • 13 Archaic Period 14 Archaic
  • Hunted large animals and small game
  • Invented tools from deer antlers
  • Moved with each season to find best food resources
  • Water levels moved back along rivers coastal areas
  • People began making hooks from animal bones
  • Shellfish became a more common food
  • Food became easier to find and there was less movement
  • 15 Archaic
  • Created grooved axes to clear trees and bushes
  • Began saving and planting seeds for planting (horticulture)
  • Made and used pottery for cooking and storing food
  • 16 Woodland Period1000 B.C. to A.D. 1000
  • Tribe group of people sharing common ancestry, name, and way of living
  • Hundreds of families formed tribes
  • Built domed-shaped huts with trees
  • Used bow and arrows to hunt
  • Held religious ceremonies
  • 17 Woodland Period
  • Improved pottery making techniques
  • Ate small game, fish, nuts, and berries
  • Also planted crops such as squash sunflowers
  • 18 Mississippian Period700 A.D. to 1600 A.D.
  • Also called the Temple Mound Period
  • Farmed with homemade tools and grew most of their own food
  • Crops (maize, beans, pumpkins, squash)
  • Thousands lived in single settlement, protected by fences and moats
  • Very religious used jewelry and body art
  • 19 Mississippian Period
  • Ancient middens (garbage piles) show what people ate, how they used fire, what they used for cooking
  • Ocmulgee National Monument near Macon reveals a large ceremonial area with benches and platforms
  • Similar tools as Woodland period stone hoes, copper headdresses
  • 20 Mississippian Period
  • Kolomoki Mounds
  • Blakely County
  • Rock Eagle Mounds
  • Near Social Circle
  • 21 Native Americans in Georgia
  • Who were they?
  • Creeks (Muscogee)
  • Cherokee
  • 22 The Creek Indians
  • Originally from American southwest
  • Spoke Muskogean
  • Discovered by European Explorers who called them Creeks
  • Lived along Ocheese Creek (todays Ocmulgee River)
  • Lived in italwa and talofa (large villages surrounded by smaller villages (similar to cities suburbs today)
  • 23 Creek Lifestyle
  • Village center featured plaza rotunda
  • Games ceremonies held in plaza
  • Rotunda used for council meetings
  • Wooden huts or log cabins with chimneys surrounded the plaza
  • Villages, split from larger villages, helped form a confederacy
  • Raised livestock were successful farmers
  • 24 The Cherokee
  • Lived in northwestern mountain region of the state
  • Called themselves the Awi-yum-wija, which meant the real people or principal people
  • Tribal clans groups of people who believed themselves to be related by Cherokee blood
  • Two tribal chiefs one for making wartime decisions, and one for making peace time decisions
  • Clans governed on the local level
  • 25 The Cherokee Family
  • Family lines were traced through the mother
  • The mothers brothers were responsible for raising the children
  • Mothers handled most of the domestic chores, fathers often left home to hunt or trade
  • Children played games that prepared them for adulthood
  • 26 Cherokee Lifestyle
  • Built homes on high banks or hills along rivers and streams
  • Shelters were built from available materials, often plastered on the exterior to keep out rain cold
  • Log cabins built for winter living
  • Fishing and raising crops including maize (corn)
  • Barter trading goods and services without exchange of money was economic system
  • 27 Cherokee Homes 28 Cherokee Religion
  • Believed earth was a large island resting on water
  • This World Tribe was at center of earth
  • Upper World Clean pure world Sun Moon were chief gods
  • Under World waters below this world disorder change
  • Deer and birds were honored, bears were not
  • 29 Other Cherokee Practices
  • Drank ginseng to stop bleeding or shortness of breath
  • Smoked tobacco during ceremonial occasions when seeking gods blessings
  • Green Corn Ceremony held to give thanks for corn, their most important source of food
  • Followed Law of Retaliation-took revenge to get even
  • This law prevented feuds within the tribes
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