**Title: Production%20%20and%20Operations%20Management:%20Manufacturing%20and%20%20Services** ** 1** Chapter IV Inventory Control

** 2** OBJECTIVES

Inventory System Defined Inventory Costs Independent vs. Dependent Demand Single-Period Inventory Model Multi-Period Inventory Models Basic Fixed-Order Quantity Models Multi-Period Inventory Models Basic Fixed-Time Period Model Miscellaneous Systems and Issues ** 3** Inventory System

Inventory is the stock of any item or resource used in an organization and can include raw materials, finished products, component parts, supplies, and work-in-process An inventory system is the set of policies and controls that monitor levels of inventory and determines what levels should be maintained, when stock should be replenished, and how large orders should be ** 4** Purposes of Inventory

1. To maintain independence of operations 2. To meet variation in product demand 3. To allow flexibility in production scheduling 4. To provide a safeguard for variation in raw material delivery time 5. To take advantage of economic purchase-order size ** 5** Inventory Costs

Holding (or carrying) costs Costs for storage, handling, insurance, etc Setup (or production change) costs Costs for arranging specific equipment setups, etc Ordering costs Costs of someone placing an order, etc Shortage costs Costs of canceling an order, etc ** 6** Independent vs. Dependent Demand Finished product E(1) Component parts

** 7** Inventory Systems

Single-Period Inventory Model One time purchasing decision (Example vendor selling t-shirts at a football game) Seeks to balance the costs of inventory overstock and under stock Multi-Period Inventory Models Fixed-Order Quantity Models Event triggered (Example running out of stock) Fixed-Time Period Models Time triggered (Example Monthly sales call by sales representative) ** 8** Single-Period Inventory Model This model states that we should continue to increase the size of the inventory so long as the probability of selling the last unit added is equal to or greater than the ratio of Cu/CoCu

** 9** Single Period Model Example

Our college basketball team is playing in a tournament game this weekend. Based on our past experience we sell on average 2,400 shirts with a standard deviation of 350. We make 10 on every shirt we sell at the game, but lose 5 on every shirt not sold. How many shirts should we make for the game? Cu 10 and Co 5 P 10 / (10 5) .667 Z.667 .432 (use NORMSDIST(.667) or Appendix E) therefore we need 2,400 .432(350) 2,551 shirts ** 10** Multi-Period ModelsFixed-Order Quantity Model Model Assumptions (Part 1)

Demand for the product is constant and uniform throughout the period Lead time (time from ordering to receipt) is constant Price per unit of product is constant ** 11** Multi-Period ModelsFixed-Order Quantity Model Model Assumptions (Part 2)

Inventory holding cost is based on average inventory Ordering or setup costs are constant All demands for the product will be satisfied (No back orders are allowed) ** 12** Basic Fixed-Order Quantity Model and Reorder Point Behavior

** 13** Cost Minimization Goal By adding the item, holding, and ordering costs together, we determine the total cost curve, which in turn is used to find the Qopt inventory order point that minimizes total costs C O S T Holding Costs Ordering Costs Order Quantity (Q)

** 14** Basic Fixed-Order Quantity (EOQ) Model Formula TCTotal annual cost D Demand C Cost per unit Q Order quantity S Cost of placing an order or setup cost R Reorder point L Lead time HAnnual holding and storage cost per unit of inventory Total Annual Cost Annual Purchase Cost Annual Ordering Cost Annual Holding Cost

** 15** Deriving the EOQ

Using calculus, we take the first derivative of the total cost function with respect to Q, and set the derivative (slope) equal to zero, solving for the optimized (cost minimized) value of Qopt We also need a reorder point to tell us when to place an order

** 16** EOQ Example (1) Problem Data Given the information below, what are the EOQ and reorder point? Annual Demand 1,000 units Days per year considered in average daily demand 365 Cost to place an order 10 Holding cost per unit per year 2.50 Lead time 7 days Cost per unit 15

** 17** EOQ Example (1) Solution In summary, you place an optimal order of 90 units. In the course of using the units to meet demand, when you only have 20 units left, place the next order of 90 units.

** 18** EOQ Example (2) Problem Data Determine the economic order quantity and the reorder point given the following Annual Demand 10,000 units Days per year considered in average daily demand 365 Cost to place an order 10 Holding cost per unit per year 10 of cost per unit Lead time 10 days Cost per unit 15

** 19** EOQ Example (2) Solution Place an order for 366 units. When in the course of using the inventory you are left with only 274 units, place the next order of 366 units.

** 20** Fixed-Time Period Model with Safety Stock Formula q Average demand Safety stock Inventory currently on hand

** 21** Multi-Period Models Fixed-Time Period Model Determining the Value of sTL

The standard deviation of a sequence of random events equals the square root of the sum of the variances ** 22** Example of the Fixed-Time Period Model Given the information below, how many units should be ordered? Average daily demand for a product is 20 units. The review period is 30 days, and lead time is 10 days. Management has set a policy of satisfying 96 percent of demand from items in stock. At the beginning of the review period there are 200 units in inventory. The daily demand standard deviation is 4 units.

** 23** Example of the Fixed-Time Period Model Solution (Part 1) The value for z is found by using the Excel NORMSINV function, or as we will do here, using Appendix D. By adding 0.5 to all the values in Appendix D and finding the value in the table that comes closest to the service probability, the z value can be read by adding the column heading label to the row label. So, by adding 0.5 to the value from Appendix D of 0.4599, we have a probability of 0.9599, which is given by a z 1.75

** 24** Example of the Fixed-Time Period Model Solution (Part 2) So, to satisfy 96 percent of the demand, you should place an order of 645 units at this review period

** 25** Price-Break Model Formula Based on the same assumptions as the EOQ model, the price-break model has a similar Qopt formula i percentage of unit cost attributed to carrying inventory C cost per unit Since C changes for each price-break, the formula above will have to be used with each price-break cost value

** 26** Price-Break Example Problem Data (Part 1) A company has a chance to reduce their inventory ordering costs by placing larger quantity orders using the price-break order quantity schedule below. What should their optimal order quantity be if this company purchases this single inventory item with an e-mail ordering cost of 4, a carrying cost rate of 2 of the inventory cost of the item, and an annual demand of 10,000 units? Order Quantity(units) Price/unit() 0 to 2,499 1.20 2,500 to 3,999 1.00 4,000 or more .98

** 27** Price-Break Example Solution (Part 2) First, plug data into formula for each price-break value of C Annual Demand (D) 10,000 units Cost to place an order (S) 4 Carrying cost of total cost (i) 2 Cost per unit (C) 1.20, 1.00, 0.98 Next, determine if the computed Qopt values are feasible or not Interval from 0 to 2499, the Qopt value is feasible Interval from 2500-3999, the Qopt value is not feasible Interval from 4000 more, the Qopt value is not feasible

** 28** Price-Break Example Solution (Part 3) Since the feasible solution occurred in the first price-break, it means that all the other true Qopt values occur at the beginnings of each price-break interval. Why? Because the total annual cost function is a u shaped function Total annual costs So the candidates for the price-breaks are 1826, 2500, and 4000 units 0 1826 2500 4000 Order Quantity

** 29** Price-Break Example Solution (Part 4) Next, we plug the true Qopt values into the total cost annual cost function to determine the total cost under each price-break TC(0-2499)(100001.20)(10000/1826)4(1826/2)(0. 021.20) 12,043.82 TC(2500-3 999) 10,041 TC(4000more) 9,949.20 Finally, we select the least costly Qopt, which is this problem occurs in the 4000 more interval. In summary, our optimal order quantity is 4000 units

** 30** Miscellaneous SystemsOptional Replenishment System Maximum Inventory Level, M M Q minimum acceptable order quantity If q gt Q, order q, otherwise do not order any.

** 31** Miscellaneous SystemsBin Systems Two-Bin System Order One Bin of Inventory Order Enough to Refill Bin

** 32** ABC Classification System

Items kept in inventory are not of equal importance in terms of dollars invested profit potential sales or usage volume stock-out penalties So, identify inventory items based on percentage of total dollar value, where A items are roughly top 15 , B items as next 35 , and the lower 65 are the C items

** 33** Inventory Accuracy and Cycle Counting

Inventory accuracy refers to how well the inventory records agree with physical count Cycle Counting is a physical inventory-taking technique in which inventory is counted on a frequent basis rather than once or twice a year ** 34** Question Bowl

The average cost of inventory in the United States is which of the following? 10 to 15 percent of its cost 15 to 20 percent of its cost 20 to 25 percent of its cost 25 to 30 percent of its cost 30 to 35 percent of its cost Answer e. 30 to 35 percent of its cost

** 35** Question Bowl

Which of the following is a reason why firms keep a supply of inventory? To maintain independence of operations To meet variation in product demand To allow flexibility in production scheduling To take advantage of economic purchase order size All of the above Answer e. All of the above (Also can include to provide a safeguard for variation in raw material delivery time.)

** 36** Question Bowl

An Inventory System should include policies that are related to which of the following? How large inventory purchase orders should be Monitoring levels of inventory Stating when stock should be replenished All of the above None of the above Answer d. All of the above

** 37** Question Bowl

Which of the following is an Inventory Cost item that is related to the managerial and clerical costs to prepare a purchase or production order? Holding costs Setup costs Carrying costs Shortage costs None of the above Answer e. None of the above (Correct answer is Ordering Costs.)

** 38** Question Bowl

Which of the following is considered a Independent Demand inventory item? Bolts to a automobile manufacturer Timber to a home builder Windows to a home builder Containers of milk to a grocery store None of the above Answer d. Containers of milk to a grocery store

** 39** Question Bowl

If you are marketing a more expensive independent demand inventory item, which inventory model should you use? Fixed-time period model Fixed-order quantity model Periodic system Periodic review system P-model Answer b. Fixed-order quantity model

** 40** Question Bowl

If the annual demand for an inventory item is 5,000 units, the ordering costs are 100 per order, and the cost of holding a unit is stock for a year is 10, which of the following is approximately the Qopt? 5,000 units 5,000 500 units 316 units None of the above Answer d. 316 units (Sqrt(2x1000x100)/10316.227 7)

** 41** Question Bowl

The basic logic behind the ABC Classification system for inventory management is which of the following? Two-bin logic One-bin logic Pareto principle All of the above None of the above Answer c. Pareto principle

** 42** Question Bowl

A physical inventory-taking technique in which inventory is counted frequently rather than once or twice a year is which of the following? Cycle counting Mathematical programming Pareto principle ABC classification Stockkeeping unit (SKU) Answer a. Cycle counting