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INFORMATION TO USERS This was produced from a copy of a document sent to us for microfilming. While the most advanced technological means to photograph and reproduce this document have been used, the quality is heavily dependent upon the quality of the material submitted. The following explanation of techniques is provided to help you understand markings or notations which may appear on this reproduction. 1. The sign or target for pages apparently lacking from the document photographed is Missing Page(s). If it was possible to obtain the missing page(s) or section, they are spliced into the film along with adjacent pages. This may have necessitated cutting through an image and duplicating adjacent pages to assure you of complete continuity. 2. When an image on the film is obliterated with a round black mark it is an indication that the film inspector noticed either blurred copy because of movement during exposure, or duplicate copy. 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ZEEB ROAD, ANN ARBOR, Ml BEDFORD ROW, LONDON WC1 R 4EJ, ENGLAND STEMM, FLORINE ANN EICHER CLOTHING ATTITUDES AND EVALUATIVE CRITERIA USED BY EMPLOYED WOMEN DIFFERING IN FEMININE-ROLE ORIENTATION AND WORK ORIENTATION: EMPHASIS ON THE SINGLE-AGAIN ADULT The Ohio State University PH.D University Microfilms International 300 N. Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI Copyright 18 Bedford Row, London WC1R 4EJ, England 198o by STEMM, FLORINE ANN EICHER All Rights Reserved CLOTHING ATTITUDES AND EVALUATIVE CRITERIA USED BY EMPLOYED WOMEN DIFFERING IN FEMININE-ROLE ORIENTATION AND WORK ORIENTATION: EMPHASIS ON THE SINGLE-AGAIN ADULT DISSERTATION Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy in the Graduate School of The Ohio State University by Florine Ann Eicher Stemm, B.S., M.S. kirtc The Ohio State University 1980 Reading Committee: Approved by: Dr. Lois E. Dickey ^ 7, ^ f ) ' f2 Dr. Roger D. Blackwell Dr. Mary Lapitsky Adviser Department of Textiles and Clothing ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Appreciation is gratefully expressed to the following persons who made the study possible: Professor Lois E. Dickey for her numerous reviews, valuable sugges tions and criticism, and unending encouraqement throughout the research Professor Mary Lapitsky for her reviews and helpful suggestions. Professor Roger Blackwell for his permission to include the Engel, Kollat, and Blackwell model of consumer behavior in the dissertation and for his valuable suggestions in planning the study. Dr. Anne Steinmann for permission to use the Maferr Inventory of Feminine Values which was title d Personal Opinionnaire in the Questionnaire. My family for their love, encouragement, and willingness to help throughout all stages of graduate study. VITA B.S., Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana Secondary Home Economics Teacher, Seymour, Indiana Research Assistant, Department of Textiles and Clothing, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota M.S., University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota Assistant Professor, Textiles and Clothing, Department of Home Economics, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio Teaching Associate, Department of Textiles and Clothing, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio Assistant Professor, Textiles and Clothing, Department of Home Economics, Illinois State University, Normal, Illinois FIELDS OF STUDY Major Field: Minor Fields: Textiles and Clothing Consumer Behavior History of Art i i i VITA (continued) Studies in Textiles and Clothing: Professors Lois E. Dickey, Mary Lapitsky, Esther A. Meacham and Mary M. Mi 11ican Studies in Consumer Behavior: Professors Roger D. Blackwell, W. Wayne Talarzyk and James F. Engel Studies in History of Art: Professors Franklin M. Ludden, Donald Keyes, Mary R. Mealy, and John Sandberg TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...ii Page VITA i ii LIST OF TABLES...vii LIST OF FIGURES...xi CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION... I Purpose... 5 Ju stificatio n... 6 II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE...10 Theoretical Framework...10 Feminine-Role Orientation...18 Work O rie n ta tio n...30 The Single-Again Adult Woman Related Clothing Research...41 Hypotheses...55 D efinitions...56 III. METHODOLOGY...59 Selection of Sample...59 Selection and Development of Measures...62 Pretest Collection of D a ta...73 Statistical Analysis of D a ta...74 IV. PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGS Background Variables Response to and Analysis of M easures...86 Testing of Hypotheses...99 Additional Analysis of Life Style Variables Life Style Q uestions v Page APPENDICES V. SUMMARY, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary Implications Recommendations A. ITEMS ON CLOTHING ATTITUDE (CA) MEASURE REVISED FROM SCRUGGS' (1976) CLOTHING ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE MEASURE B. QUESTIONNAIRE C. STATISTICAL TABLES D. HUMAN SUBJECTS APPROVAL FORM LITERATURE CITED vi LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Summary of Terminology Used to Describe Feminine-Role Orientation Demographic Characteristics of Working Women: Total Group and Single-Again Mean Scores, Range, and Standard Deviations of the Clothing Attitude Measure for the Total Group Frequency Distribution for Last Outfit Purchased for Work and for a Social Occasion Mean Values and Standard Deviations of the Evaluative Criteria for a Work and a Social Occasion Outfit Frequency Distributions for Determinant Criteria for a Work Outfit and a Social Occasion O utfit Evaluative Criteria Factors for Work and for Social Occasion Outfit Analysis of Variance Summary Table for Clothing Attitudes with Marital Status (MS), Work Orientation (WO), and Feminine-Role Orientation (FRO) Analysis of Variance Summary Table for Evaluative Criteria Used for a Work Outfit with Marital Status (MS), Work Orientation (WO), and Feminine- Role Orientation (FRO) Analysis of Variance Summary Table for Evaluative Criteria Used for a Social Occasion Outfit with Marital Status (MS), Work Orientation (WO), and Feminine-Role Orientation (FRO) Mean Scores for Clothing Attitude, Appearance, According to Feminine-Role Orientation (FRO), Marital Status (MS), and Work Orientation (WO) vii TABLES (continued) Table Page 12. Mean Scores for Clothing Attitude, Experimental, According to Feminine-Role Orientation (FRO), Marital Status (MS), and Work Orientation (WO) Mean Scores for Clothing Attitude, Fashion, According to Feminine-Role Orientation (FRO), Marital Status (MS),and Work Orientation (WO) Mean Scores for Clothing Attitude, Management, According to Feminine-Role Orientation (FRO), and Marital Status (M S) Mean Scores for Evaluative Criteria Factor, Pragmatic-Work, According to Feminine-Role Orientation (FRO), Marital Status (MS), and Work Orientation (WO) Mean Scores for Evaluative Criteria Factor, Pragmatic-Social, According to Feminine-Role Orientation (FRO), and Marital Status (MS) Social Activity for the Total Group and by Marital Status Type of Store Most Frequently Shopped for Work Outfit and Social Occasio'n Outfit: Total Group and by Feminine-Role Orientation (FRO), Work Orientation (WO), and Marital Status (MS) Time Spent Planning and Shopping for Clothing: Total Group and by Work Orientation Price Limits for Work Outfit and Social Occasion Outfit for Total Group, Feminine-Role Orientation (FRO), Work Orientation (WO), and Marital Status (MS) Comparison of Responses to Reynolds1 Feminine- Role Measure and the Inventory of Feminine Values viii TABLES (continued) Table Page 22. Kuder-Richardson Reliability Coefficient and Item Analysis for Clothing Attitudes (CA) Measure Factors and Factor Loadings Derived from Factor Analysis of Evaluative C riteria Regression Analysis for Clothing Attitude, Appearance, with Life Style and Demographic Characteristics Regression Analysis for Clothing Attitude, Dependence, with Life Style and Demographic Characteristics Regression Analysis for Clothing Attitude, Experimental, with Life Style and Demographic Characteristics Regression Analysis for Clothing Attitude, Fashion, with Life Style and Demographic Characteristics Regression Analysis for Clothing Attitude, Management, with Life Style and Demographic C haracteristics Regression Analysis for Evaluative Criteria Factor, Pragmatic-Work, with Life Style and Demographic Characteristics Regression Analysis for Evaluative Criteria Factor, Aesthetic-Work, with Life Style and Demographic Characteristics Regression Analysis for Evaluative Criteria Factor, Quality Concerns, with Life Style and Demographic Characteristics Regression Analysis for Evaluative Criteria Factor, Pragmatic-Social, with Life Style and Demographic Characteristics ix TABLES (continued) Table Regression Analysis for Evaluative Criteria Factor, Qualit.y-Care, with Life Style and Democratic Characteristics... Regression Analysis for Evaluative Criteria Factor, Aesthetic-Social, with Life Style and Demographic Characteristics... Use of Time by Subjects: Total Group, by Marital Status, and by Work Orientation... Page x LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1. Engel-Kollat-Blackwell Model of Consumer Behavior... II 2. Determinants of Evaluative C riteria...17 xi CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The study of consumer behavior has received increasing attention since the 1960s. One outcome of the increased focus has been to identify the characteristics of various segments of the market in relation to consumers' choice of goods and services. Three types of market segmentation which have been popular are geographic segmentation, demographic segmentation, and volume segmentation. A fourth approach to market segmentation is called benefit segmentation, which is based on the idea that the benefits which people are seeking in consuming a given product are the basic reasons for the existence of true market segments (Haley, 1968, p. 31). The decision process that precedes and determines the choice of goods and services has been examined for various segments (Engel, Blackwell, & Kollat, 1978). Since clothing is a consumer good, knowledge of benefits sought and characteristics of various market segments should enable individuals working with apparel to help the consumers obtain greater satisfaction with clothing. An understanding of what will satisfy consumer needs should result when more information is available than at present regarding why people choose the clothes they do, how society influences their selection, and the relationship between personal values and attitudes in the use of clothing. Clothing attitudes have been studied and found to vary in importance according to sex (Zentner, 1971), age (Scruggs, 1976), and marital status (Jenkins, 1973). In other studies, differences were not supported for marital status (Scruggs, 1976), employment outside the home (Musa, 1973), or occupation (Connor, 1977). Yet, the importance of clothing in career attainment is suggested by the recent increase of books and popular articles addressing the dress-fpr-success theme (Molloy, 1977; Sommer, 1977; & T ittle, 1977). Researchers have examined clothing attitudes in relation to aspects of consumer behavior and found that clothing attitudes are related to the use of evaluative criteria (Jenkins, 1973), satisfaction, dissatisfaction and consumer complaints (Wall, 1974), and use of information on care labels (Arbaugh, 1974). Life style variables were used by Jenkins, Wall, and Arbaugh to profile consumer segments. Three major changes in society which influence the life style of women have been noted by Pifer (1976): employment outside the home, changes in perception of the feminine role, and the increase in divorce. The movement of women into the labor force has been called the single most outstanding phenomenon of our century by Columbia University economist Eli Ginzberg (Lindsey, 1976, p. 49). In 1979, over half the women worked or were looking for jobs ( Working Women, 1979). However, working women do not constitute a monolithic group (Bartos, 1977; Reynolds, Crask & Wells, 1977; Working Women Survey, 1978). Some women are satisfied with just a job while others seek a career. The increase in women's labor force participation has been linked to changes in sex-role attitudes. In examining the relationship between employment outside the home and sex-role attitudes, various terms are used in the literature. Thus, the term feminine life style has been used to describe work orientation which has been defined as, working versus not working (Reynolds et a l., 1977; Musa, 1973) and career versus just a job (Bartos, 1977), while feminine-role orientation has been used to differentiate modern versus traditional (Reynolds et a l., 1977). The increase in working women has also been related to the increase in divorce. Although the increase in number of working women was primarily due to married v/omen entering the labor market, especially mothers of school-age children, the high labor force participation rate and increase in number of divorced women (single-again) have been noted (Pifer, 1976). Most authors do not actually suggest that divorce is caused by women working outside the home; however, one author ( Working Women, 1979, p. 64) stated the working woman appears to be playing a key role in a wave of social change that includes... more divorces.... Other authors (Harmon, 1970; McKenry, White & Price-Bonham, 1978) noted the relationship between work-related values and divorce; however, a cause and effect relationship was not tested. Thus, the effect of divorce and working on consumer behavior needs to be investigated. Do single-again women or working women comprise a market segment? The question has been raised concerning implications for re ta iling due to the changing American family, such as working women and female-headed household (Crabtree, 1977; Engel et a l., 1978). However, relationships have not been examined among clothing attitudes, the criteria used in the consumer-decision process, and the life style of consumers, specifically, working women. Many of the variables which influence the consumer-decision process are included in the Engel, Kollat, and Blackwell model of consumer behavior (Engel et a l., 1978). Life style is considered to be an important determinant of evaluative criteria considered important in the choice of an alternative to meet a need. Stored information and experience are also considered important in influencing which evaluative criteria will be used in the consumer-decision process. Clothing attitudes could be considered part of stored information and experience. The present study focused on clothing attitudes and evaluative criteria used by working women who represent variations in life style represented by feminine-role orientation, work orientation, and variations in marital status. The study should be of interest to retailers and individuals working with consumers to determine whether there are identifiable segments of working women according to feminine-role orientation, work orientation, or marital status. Purpose The purpose in the study was to investigate clothing attitudes and use of evaluative criteria in the choice of apparel by employed women to determine relationships with feminine-role orientation, work orientation, and marital status. Emphasis was on single-again employed women to determine if they constitute a distinct market segment. Although feminine-role orientation and work orientation are thought to be important in the consumer-decision process, results reported in published studies have been inconsistent; single-again women have not been studied in this context. The major questions addressed in the study were as follows: 1. How do clothing attitudes differ for women who vary in feminine-role orientation and work orientation? 2. How do the evaluative criteria used in the choice of apparel differ for women who vary in feminine-role orientation and work orientation? 3. Are variations in clothing attitudes and use of evaluative criteria in the choice of apparel associated with variations in marital status and other selected demographic variables such as age, education, occupation, number of children, and income? Justification for the study is presented in the following section. The hypotheses and definitions of variables used in the study are presented at the end of Chapter II following the review of literatu re. Justification A number of models have been developed to explain consumer behavior since a model is a replica of the phenomena it is intended to designate. The Engel, Kollat, and Blackwell (EKB) model is an elaborate flow chart of the consumer-decision process. The relationships among elements as presented in the model are based on past research or are proposed where a lack of research exists to support the link. The model offers a number of advantages: 1. Explanatory variables are specified; 2. Research findings can be integrated into a meaningful whole; 3. Explanations are provided for performance of the system; and 4. Avenues of fruitful research are revealed (Engel et a l., 1978, p. 544). Other researchers have used the EKB model (1973 version) to study the consumer-decision process as i t related to textiles and clothing (Jenkins, 1973; Arbaugh, 1974; Wall, 1974). Jenkins focused on evaluative criteria as a concrete manifestation of underlying values and as a means of assessing the tex tile product and information needs of lower and middle socioeconomic consumers. Wall investigated consumers' clothing performance satisfaction and communication of clothing performance complaints using a c tiv ities, interests, and opinions (AIO), demographics, and te x tile knowledge. Arbaugh investigated the use consumers made of care label information in the selection and care of 7 textile products. Life style, demographic, and tex tile knowledge variables were used to characterize consumer groups who differed in their use. of care information. Levels of satisfaction with purchased textile items were considered in relation to the consumers' use of care label information. Consumer characteristics have been examined to identify viable ways of segmenting the market. The influence of the modern feminine life style has been the focus of a number of studies to determine the affect on consumer behavior (Anderson, 1972; Bartos, 1977; Douglas & Urban, 1977; Musa, 1973; Reynolds, Crask & Wells, 1977). Studies using feminine-role orientation have not yielded consistent results; yet, feminine role is thought to be reflected in consumer behavior (Douglas & Urban, 1977; Reynolds et a l., 1977). The terms modern and trad i tional have been used to describe opposing views of women's roles and attitudes towards home, work, and family. In a cross-cultural study of women in the United States, the United Kingdom, and France, Douglas and Urban (1977) found that the major dimension differentiating working and nonworking wives was their attitudes toward the home and their involvement in the homemaking role. However, the characteristic of working versus nonworking did not have a major influence on their purchasing behavior. The researchers found that the degree to which women adhered to the traditional cultural norms conc
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